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Goryeo's Response to the Invasion by the Qadan Forces in the End of 13th Century

Jinsoo Kim 1

1육군3사관학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

In Mongolia, which appeared as a great global empire in the 13th century, a fierce political strife took place over the succession of the throne after the death (1259) of the 4th Emperor, Mungke. Kublai Khan who ascended to the imperial throne in 1260 (Wonjong 1) changed the country name to Yuan as he griped with the civil war, and established the centralizing system having Yuan Dynasty in its center. However, as some feudal lords uprose against to Kublai Khan of Yuan Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty came under another civil war. The representative powers were the House of West in the Central Asia, the House of East in North Eastern Manchuria, etc. and they raised rebellions for the purpose of the overthrow of Yuan Dynasty, respectively in 1269 and 1287. Especially, the aftermath of the rebellion by the House of East was carried into Goryeo, a neighbor nation as well as the Yuan Dynasty. As Goreyo invasion by the Qadan Forces, a member for the House of East was imminent, Goryeo was actively implementing the preventative measures as a matter of Centralism and continuously preparing such as strengthening the military joint with Yuan Dynasty in oder to provide for the future. The Qadan Forces, who resisted to Yuan in the first month of 1291, invaded them from the both directions, north east and north west such as Cheolryeong-Wonju-Chungju and the Yalu River-Seokyeong-Gaekyeong. If looking at the military situation of north west area first, Qadan Forces of Naodi won the war against to the Yuan Forces at the Yalu River and reached Seokyeong Area. Duo the Yis situation, Goreyo faced a military emergency that it capital Gaekyeong and Gangdo were threatened. However, as the Goreyo Forces led by Nayoo largely succeeded in defeating the Qadan Forces in Seokyeong, they managed to overcome the crisis. In the war situation of north east area, local crowds of Wonju and Chungju fought back at the battles in the military base under the command of Banghobyeolgam, a military official in Goreyo and repulsed the main forces of Qadan. Goreyo could seize the winning chance in the war thank to the active responses of the Government Forces and the fight backs of the local crowds in the beginning stage of the war. The Goreyo-Yuan Allied Forces formed by Yuan's military aid in April of the same year ended the war by finally repulsing the Qadan Forces in Yeongihyeon. Goreyo's triumph in this war was conclusively possible by Yuan's military aids. However, the active responses of the Goreyo Government Forces and the fight backs of the local crowds centered in the military bases in the beginning stage of the war are also evaluated as the key figures of winning the war. This suggests that Goreyo's wills for the national level of responses to the foreign wars was firm.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.