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The Soviet Maritime Strategy in the Cold War and The U.S. Response

정광호 1

1국방대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

Although the Soviet’s military strategy was continent oriented in the 1920~1930, the Soviet Union had two maritime strategies. The first was ‘the old school’ that pursed the traditional maritime strategy, contending that it had to strengthen nuclear powered battleships and cruises to command the sea despite the limitations of the geopolitics and sufficient forces and this is in the same vein as the classical theory of maritime strategy by Colomb and Mahan. The second was ‘the young school’ that pursued small navy with patrol killers, destroyers, submarines and land based naval aircraft, contending that it could deny enemy’s command of the sea, which is better than to defeat the enemy and command the sea. Following the two schools, the soviet school emerged which emphasized the limited sea power, focusing on the equal force strategy and current aggressive fleet in 1949. On the other hand, the Soviet Union in 1956 had made use of a naval power as a means of national policy with the advent of Gorshkov. Since 1970, sea denial strategy was adopted by the Soviet’s maritime strategy of the Soviet Union and started to expand the Soviet Union’s interest in the Asia-Pacific region. As the Soviet navy increased his power in the Pacific region, the U.S. Navy changed to active maritime strategy. in the past the U. S. navy was forced to play a passive role with a ground oriented forces in the Atlantic region after World War-Ⅱ. The concept of ‘aggressive maritime strategy,’ ‘Sea Plan 2000,’ and ‘600 Navy Ships’ had strengthened U. S. navy’s doctrine and these became the specific and clear maritime strategy of the U. S. Therefore, this article will find out the changes in maritime strategy of the U. S. in response to the Soviet maritime strategy during the Cold War.

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* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.