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Comparative Study on the Causes of Byeongja Horan and the Military Strategies of Joseon and Qing Dynasties

Lee,Jongho 1

1건양대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

This is the study on the implications for Korea in relation to the current changes happening in the U.S. and the economic-political developments of modernized China through the comparative analysis of military strategies of Joseon and Qing imperial focused on the ‘Byeongja Horan’(the Qing’s invasion into the Joseon territory) during the transfer period from Ming dynasty to Qing imperial. The international relationships in the region of East Asia had gone through a lot of dramatic changes. Within the East Asian international order in this period, all the countries in the region including Joseon, Ming dynasties, Mongol empire, Japan and the Manchurians of Qing faced the decisive turning point in terms of each nations’s status change. That meaned the transition from multi-international relationships which had been formed among the group of Ming dynasty, Qing and Mogol empire and that of Qing, Ming and Joseon to the alliance of the bloc of Qing, Mongoal and Joseon to confront against Ming dynasty. As the power struggle between Ming and Qing dynasties for taking initiative in the region of East Asia grew intense, the four countries such as Ming, Qing, Joseon and Mongol had tried to secure their countries' survival. Moreover, they made a lot of efforts to secure their own sovereignty and the hegemony of the area. Joseon, the defeated country during the ‘Byeongja Horan’, was integrated into the new international order built-up by the Qing imperial. Joseon still remained the status of independent entity but started to serve Qing imperial as a tributary state, which it despised once as the outlandersAs the Qing established the political status firmly as imperial country, the toadyism toward Qing imperial instead of Ming dynasty had followed and continued until about 260 years passed, the year of 1894 when Qing-Japan war broke out. On this study, some moves and actions taken by Joseon dynasty as well as several missteps committed by the Joseon military leadership who took them during the war, are analyzed. In addition, the characteristics of war at that time are also brought up and some impacts to Korea today in terms of both domestic and international conditions are examined from the certain related theses that were already written. We also research and annalize the military strategies of Joseon dynasty and Qing Imperial comparably and also assess whether these two countries’ strategies are appropriate or not in consideration of international environments, military power and national resources during the period of ‘Byeongja Horan’, finally try to draw the implications and lessons learned to this day.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.