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Planning process and four operational plans for the Inchon Amphibious Operation(Operation Chromite)

  • military history
  • 2024, (131), pp.183-224
  • Publisher : Military History Institute, MND
  • Research Area : Humanities > History
  • Received : April 17, 2024
  • Accepted : May 29, 2024
  • Published : June 15, 2024

Seo Chijong 1

1해병대사령부

Accredited

ABSTRACT

Until now, most studies about the Inchon Landing operation have been focused on the operation process and outcome rather than on the planning of the Inchon Amphibious Operation. This study intends to understand the plans of the Inchon Amphibious Operation and provide a basis for research linking plans with the actual operation process by studying the planning process and the contents of 4 Chromites. MacArthur had become convinced that Amphibious operations should be carried out in the rear of NK forces to end the war early and regain the initiative, and he evaluated that Landing on Inchon would expose the NK forces where they were most vulnerable. It was determined that securing Inchon and Kimpo Airport would enable US and ROK forces to secure Seoul and the enemy’s line of communications and enable a decisive attack in conjunction with counter on the Naktong perimeter. Operation Bluehearts had been planned to be an amphibious attack on Inchon by the provisional 1st Marine Brigade and 1st Cavalry Division, but was canceled because US and ROK forces could not halt the advance of the enemy. Although Operation BlueHearts was canceled, MacArthur drew up a new Amphibious operation. Operation Chromite was based on 100-B, which aimed to destroy NK forces in conjunction with the 8th Army. The plan was published in 4 plans: 100-C and D for the contingencies of the 8th Army countering from the south, and 100-A in case Amphibious operation was impossible or unsuccessful in Inchon, and in case MacArthur changed the landing site.

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