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The Critical Study on Political Change in Korea -Focusing on Rhee and Park Regimes-

  • The Journal of Northeast Asia Research
  • Abbr : NEA
  • 2017, 32(2), pp.37-65
  • DOI : 10.18013/jnar.2017.32.2.002
  • Publisher : The Institute for Northeast Asia Research
  • Research Area : Social Science > Political Science > International Politics > International Relations / Cooperation

쑨이페이 1 Chung, Tae-il 2

1충북대학교 정치외교학과
2충북대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

Most countries experience political changes due to various political crises. Political change tends to distort the democratic process according to the political situation of the state. Before the democratization, Korean politics had a negative effect by the regime of Rhee and Park. This study will analyze the political changes in the Rhee and Park regimes through the power structure, the Presidential election system, the presidential term, and the national assembly election system. First, the parliamentary system and the presidential system in the Rhee and Park regimes adopted a mixed-type presidential system despite many controversies. This reflects the preference of the ruler. Second, the Rhee and Park regimes adopted the presidential election system, which is highly likely to be elected according to the political situation. The Rhee regime changed from indirect election to direct election. The Park regime changed from direct election to indirect election. Third, the Rhee and Park regimes abolished the two-term presidency through constitutional amendment. Through this, permanent power was possible. Fourth, the Rhee regime introduced the party recommendation system to stabilize the ruling party, and the Park regime introduced the party nomination system, the national proportional representation system, the Yushin national assembly system. The Rhee and Park regimes distorted korean politics in the process of long-term ruling by stabilizing the ruling party. After democratization, korean politics developed democracy through institutional devices.

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