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Youth Unemployment and Employment Policy in Germany - Focused on the ‘Dual System’ of Job Training and Education

LEE HO GEUN 1

1전북대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The youth employment in Germany should be specially considered in the context of historical development of job training and education in the dual system. The ‘policy’ of youth unemployment in Germany is mainly focused on the socially precarious groups such as the early school leaver, low skill worker, disabled person and the long term unemployed, while the korean youth unemployment shows the high rate among the highly educated people. Therefore, the cause and counter-measure of the youth unemployment is different from each other. The important policies of the german youth unemployment since the second half of the 90ties have been continuously tried in the Job-AQTIV-Gesetz, JUMU(Jugend mit Perspektiv) and JUMP Plus, Hartz-Gesetz(I-IV), and the Youth Guarantee which is now being campaigned in the level of whole European Union(EU) since 2013 etc. However, the real ‘institutional background’ of the low youth unemployment rate in german speaking zones like Germany, Austria, Swiss, Denmark and Netherlands etc. is in the ‘dual system’ for the youth between 15 and 19 years old, in which the training at the shop floor and the education at the school are being parallel offered. In this dual system, the finishers of the first middle course in the Realschule, Hauptschule, Gesamtschule and the finishers of low class in the Gymnasium become to take the courses of job training (Ausbildung) and education at the same time. The (local) government is supervising and supporting the courses, preparing for the related curriculums, and giving the certificates, with which the youth can enter the labour market. The employer is thereby cooperating closely with the government and the trade union (Ausbildungspakt). This article analyzes the each important course of the german dual system such as the Berufschule (berufsbildende Schule) at the second middle course, the Berufsakademie at the next course, and the following course of wide second education (Weiterbildung) or the continuous training (Fortbildung) as well as the Fachhochschule or University of the Applied Sciences at the fourth and highest course. This kind of special education and training systems, specially in the second middle course for the 15-19 years youth is the key success of the high youth employment. This article analyzes this dual system and is trying to get the some implications for the korean youth unemployment.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.