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Analysis on the formation of the family planning policy in Korea: Focused on the perspective of policy diffusion

  • Korea Social Policy Review
  • Abbr : KSPR
  • 2019, 26(3), pp.195-223
  • DOI : 10.17000/kspr.26.3.201909.195
  • Publisher : Korean Association of Social Policy
  • Research Area : Social Science > Sociology > Medical / Welfare / Social policy
  • Received : July 31, 2019
  • Accepted : September 11, 2019
  • Published : September 30, 2019

Oh, Young Ran 1

1경남과학기술대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to examine how family planning policy in Korea are introduced. Specifically, it examines the introduction of family planning policy from the perspective of policy diffusion. The policy diffusion has mainly described the process in which similar policies between countries are introduced into the country through the process of imitation and learning of policy actors, and in addition to the domestic situation, international factors serve as an explanatory element for the introduction of major policies. In the results of analysis, first, it is birth control that is based on the view and recognition of the rapid population growth of Asian countries in the international society as an external factor of policy introduction. In other words, the security crisis of the East‐west Cold War, deepened in the reorganization of the world order after the Second World War, and the growing population of Asian developing countries and poverty caused by this, were recognized as connected problems. As a solution to these problems, the necessity of childbirth suppression emerged and it spread to Asian countries through various ways and paths, which also affected the adoption of family planning policy in Korea. Second, as for how policy models have influenced the adoption of family planning policies in Korea, above all, the birth control model for economic development was diffused and introduced as a policy, not for guaranteeing maternal health and social role of women. In addition, in terms of the way of spreading, it was carried out by becoming the subject of global networks, for specialists in the field of health care and public administration, with the means such as research and support for learning such as training and education in other countries, and providing a place for exchange through this. The policy impact of this pattern is transferred to the establishment of the domestic organization of the global network and to the policy actors of the global network, and goes through a process of policy making. Domestically in Korea, the policy goals of economic development to secure legitimacy of authoritarian government, and the strong policy enforcement power of the political system at the time were also a background to promote policy adoption. In conclusion, it promoted the spread of the pattern of abortion policy through the way of policy making and exchange of experts and research support which the international society showed to the Asian countries, this method and route are accepted through the process of imitation and learning of domestic population problems and major actors related to childbirth, and through the process of policy proposals based on this, Korea's family planning could manage to become a policy.

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