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How Familism was Used in the Family Planning in Korea

  • Korea Social Policy Review
  • Abbr : KSPR
  • 2020, 27(1), pp.213-248
  • DOI : 10.17000/kspr.27.1.202003.213
  • Publisher : Korean Association of Social Policy
  • Research Area : Social Science > Sociology > Medical / Welfare / Social policy
  • Received : January 31, 2020
  • Accepted : March 4, 2020
  • Published : March 31, 2020

Oh, Young Ran 1

1경남과학기술대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to examine how familism was used in the development of family planning in Korea. Here are a few of problem consciousness. It is to clarify the practical meaning of what familism is and to clarify the process through a practical policy case called family planning. Familism is a term often used as the basis of social culture in East Asia, including Korea, but it is hard to say that the concreteness of the concept is clear. In this context, this study attempts to examine how familism was used in the development process through practical policy cases called family planning. With regard to the fact that Korea's family planning was achieved much faster than other Asian countries, there is a perception that it is necessary to answer the question, what was it that caused it happen? For this purpose, this study aiming at the family planning policy in terms of the combination of familism and sociocultural characteristics of Korea analyzed what it really looks like when familism are combined with the three characteristics such as normal family ideology, authoritarianism, and gender‐discrimination culture. As a result, in terms of the combination with normal family mythology, through reducing the number of children, family planning focused on making small number of children's families and recognized them as a normal family image. The combination with authoritarian regimes used familism as the governing principle through strong executive and regulatory powers, and it was implemented as a precondition for welfare support and as a collective norm at the village level. In addition, the combination of gender‐discrimination culture and familism shows the process of strengthening women's family restraint in the clash with traditional customs of a notion of preferring a son to a daughter, and it can also be seen that the way of practice is represented by the control of the woman’s body.

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