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Review on Theories of Urban Origins in the Perspective of Geography

  • Journal of the Association of Korean Geographers
  • Abbr : JAKG
  • 2020, 9(2), pp.341-357
  • DOI : 10.25202/JAKG.9.2.8
  • Publisher : Association of Korean Geographers
  • Research Area : Social Science > Geography
  • Received : July 13, 2020
  • Accepted : August 3, 2020
  • Published : August 31, 2020

Jungyeop Shin 1 Kamyoung Kim 2

1서울대학교 지리교육과
2경북대학교 지리교육과

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to review critically the urban origins from the perspective of urban history and urban geography. There is a variety of approaches for urban origins, and this research categorized them into agricultural-based, economic, and socio-cultural perspectives. The agriculture-based perspective consists of agricultural surplus and hydraulic theories. The agricultural surplus theory argued that the city originated from the agricultural surplus, and the hydraulic theory argued the urban origin from the institutional development for managing water resources. The trade theory representing the economic perspective argued that the city originated based on trade and market, not being based on agricultural surplus. Finally, the socio-cultural perspective explained the urban origins and process of first cities from the socio-institutional, religious, and martial and defense approaches. These approaches are very useful in that they explained the reasons and factors for the urban origins and the development of ancient cities, and will be more valuable for explanation if more approaches are considered, not a single one. The further research should be continued in that the discussions of these urban origins have great impact on the research subjects for urban history and urban geography.

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