본문 바로가기
  • Home

On the Sound Value of Dong(冬) Rime in Ancient Chinese and Northern Regions in Tang Era Based on Yamanoueno Okura‘s Phonetic Alphabet 農(/nu/) in Manyōshū

KIM DAE SUNG 1

1전남대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

I have two broader aims. The first is to explore when Dong(冬) rime was combined with Dong(東) one in DivisionⅠ during Tang era. My second aim is to attempt to reconstruct the sound value of Dong(冬) rime in Ancient Chinese and the one in Northern Regions in Tang era. We find that Dong(冬) rime was assimilated into Dong(東) rime before A.D.683 when Gao Zong, an emperor of Tang dynasty, died, because of his being the first user of the two rimes rhymed in an inscription. It is significant to note that Dong(冬) was [oŋ] in Ancient Chinese, and [ ŋ] in the Northen regional sound of Tang dynasty. The [oŋ] has been reconstructed by Sino-Korean /옹/, Manyōgana or Old Japanese phonetic alphabet 宗(/so/) except for 農(/nu/) representing the latter sound, and Sino-Vietnamese and Sino-Tibetan [oŋ] which are the secondary sources. The Northern [ ŋ] is mainly based on 農(/nu/) of which Yamanoueno Okura made use. We find 11 examples in Manyōshū in which Yamanoueno Okura wrote ten times and Yamabeno Akahito, who used 農 at the same time as Okura, had only one example. Okura stayed in Tang at least for two years in the early 8th century when Ancient Chinese was undergoing its great shift in sounds. It implies that he might have known very well the sound changes in the period. The [ ŋ] theory is also grounded in the 農 instances of Nihonsyoki and Fudoki. 農 is mainly represented as /nu/ in α group poems in the former, although a few characters of Mo(模) rime are illustrated for /nu/, and it is also recorded only for /nu/ in the latter with 努 having two different sounds /nu/ and /no/.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.