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Oxidation debris on graphene oxide and its influence in the new route of formation for akaganéite (β-FeOOH) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) under mild condition

  • Carbon Letters
  • Abbr : Carbon Lett.
  • 2024, 34(5), pp.1329-1342
  • DOI : 10.1007/s42823-024-00692-7
  • Publisher : Korean Carbon Society
  • Research Area : Natural Science > Natural Science General > Other Natural Sciences General
  • Received : September 7, 2023
  • Accepted : January 10, 2024
  • Published : June 14, 2024

Nugroho Bangun Satrio 1 Wihadi Muh. Nur Khoiru 2 Nakashima Satoru 3 Amin Amalia Kurnia 2

1Universitas Muhadi Setiabudi
2Research Center for Chemistry, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Republik Indonesia, Kawasan Sains Dan Teknologi (K.S.T)
3Hiroshima University

Accredited

ABSTRACT

We report a new route of akaganéite (β-FeOOH) formation and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) formation. Akaganéite can be produced by stirring Fe2+ at room temperature for a day under mild conditions. We used FeCl2·4H2O as the precursor and mixed it with the Na-rich particle from the oxidation debris solution. The role of the concentration ratio between graphene oxide (GO) and NaOH was addressed to generate oxidation debris (OD) on the surface. In particular, the characterization of OD by transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging provides clear evidence for the crystal formation of Na-rich particle under electron beam irradiation. For the base treatment process, increasing the concentration of a NaOH in Na-rich solution contributed primarily to the formation of γ-Fe2O3. The characterization by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and TEM showed that the morphology was changed from needle-like to small-oval form. In addition, β-FeOOH can be effectively produced directly using GO combined with FeCl2·4H2O at room temperature. More specifically, the role of parent material (Hummer's GO and Brodie's GO) was discussed, and the crystal transformation was identified. Our results concluded that β-FeOOH can be formed in basic and acidic conditions.

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