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The Study on XianJing(仙境) in LieXianZhuan(列仙傳)

  • The Journal of Chinese Cultural Studies
  • 2020, (50), pp.21-63
  • DOI : 10.18212/cccs.2020..50.002
  • Publisher : The Society For Chinese Cultural Studies
  • Research Area : Humanities > Chinese Language and Literature > Chinese Literature > Chinese Culture
  • Received : October 10, 2020
  • Accepted : November 9, 2020
  • Published : November 30, 2020

Kwon,Young-Ae 1

1건양대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

Fiction is originated from the desire to recreate the world already exist, but also is originated from the will to create the desired world. The latter is the essence of fiction, rather than the former, and XianJing(仙境) of storys of Immortals is the time and space that the author reflects the universal dream of humans, including himself. The XianJing in the works of 『LieXianZhuan』are analyzed. There were 24 out of 70 works related to the XianJing. As a result of analyzing of the XianJing, it was not only in the Heaven, mountains, and islands, but also in river and secular worlds: there are 15 works of XianJing in the heaven, 2 works in mountain, 2 work in underwater islands, 3 works in river, and 2 works in secular world. According to the figure, the era of 『LieXianZhuan』 was when the XianJing in the heaven are yearned. It was possible to derive the basic system of XianJing from “HanZi(邗子)”, the only work that embodies the XianJing. First, while the XianJing and the secular world are in different dimension, secular people can enter the XianJing through extraordinary paths or by sacred animals(靈物). Second, the structure of XianJing is analogous to a secular palace and there are a secular-like daily life. There are hierarchies and duties of a post to the immortals living in the XianJing. Third, the secular world is a time and space that bad fortune and diseases occur, while the XianJing is an intact space and time without them. Fourth, the immortal living in XianJing are concerned about secular people’s lives and have affection to secular people. The immortal tries to save people from suffering. Fifth, the superior immortal of XianJing assigns messengers or sacred animals(靈物) that embody their will. The messengers and sacred animals(靈物) grow up in the secular world. Sixth, those who contribute to the communication between the secular world and the XianJing and propagate the immortal’s will to secular people can become the immortal.Seventh, the new immortals also attempt to save secular people from sufferings like the existing immortals, and the secular people honor the benefits. The second feature is noted. Although the XianJing is the time and space inhabited by the immortals, it was not a world different from the feudal secular world at the time. However, Max Weber’s “moniabüro-kratie(家産官僚制)” is reflected in the system. The values ​​implied in the system were explored. From a consistent perspective that the 'immortals' are ‘human sublimation', the 'sacred Animals(靈物)' are 'animal sublimation', and the ' XianJing in 『LieXianZhuan(列仙傳)』' is 'secular world sublimation', it is examined that the sufferings in the secular world that anonymous immortals residing in the XianJing and the immortals returned to the secular world from the XianJing attempted to overcome. The values are categorized as eight criteria: farming without trouble, family love, justice in power, prevention of natural disasters, disease treatment, purification of mind, promotion of public wealth, and propagation of the immortals’ will. These values ​​are the concrete values ​​within the system that have been omitted from the XianJing of "LieXianZhuan". The values ​the immortals ​want to realize in the secular world are what they wished for before they became a immortals, and the realization of that ideal is 'sublimation of the secular world'. The 'sublimation of the secular world' is the ultimate wish of the immortals. The system of Xianjing is different from an existing utopia type: Millenium, Utopia, Arcadia. Such XianJing in『LieXianZhuan(列仙傳)』 should be evaluated in the circumstances of the time it published. Considering the Warring States period, when people suffered from war and disease, hunger and natural disasters, and the tyranny of power, the realization of the values ​​would be difficult, and if the values realized, it would be an ideal society in which the ideal was embodied, namely, the XianJing in 『LieXianZhuan(列仙傳)』. All in all, the XianJing of 『LieXianZhuan(列仙傳)』 was an idea that enabled readers to awaken reality and provide a vision for improvement, and an energy for a better society.

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