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pISSN : 1975-521X / eISSN : 2765-3943

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2019, Vol.39, No.1

  • 1.

    A Study on Seo, Geojong's Gongjusipgyeong Chinese Poems -Centering of Local Convergence Culture Search in Gongju-

    Kim,Mi-Seon | 2019, 39(1) | pp.1~26 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study has explored Seo, Geojeong's Chinese poems contents as the study scope. I intended to present after finding liberal arts convergence in Gongju district with this base. Our country has a tradition which calls 'Sipgyeong', beautiful scenery binding, that is to say, a scenic beauty of legion from the ancient times. By the way, whatever good scenery , never call naming 'Sipgyeong' with once beautiful scenery making. Because long time cultural assessment has accumulated, and people has called the name as sympathizing of meaning naturally. Review of Seo, Geojeong's Gongju Sipgyeong, this is found by author's personal viewpoint and subjectivity rather than local people's sympathizing base objectivity, and by great including of conceptual and obscure idea rather than concrete points. However, in there points nowadays local humanist's convergence data are wonderful contents for practical use. After reviewing the 10 princesses of Seo, Geojeong's, I found that this was based on the writer's personal view and subject rather than the objectivity based on the local people's consensus, and that it contained many conceptual and vague concepts rather than concrete ones. In Gongju, there are so many beautiful sceneries and sites. It is demanding that tourism Gongju management by these sources. 500 years ago, 300 years ago, Gongju 10 sceneries, in fact, their timely of subject matter has already lost, but 'Gongju 10 sceneries' data are still remaining beautiful. After reviewing the 10 princesses of Seo, Geojeong's, I found that this was based on the writer's personal view and subject rather than the objectivity based on the local people's consensus, and that it contained many conceptual and vague concepts rather than concrete ones. Through this process, the development of new materials for tourism princesses will be carried out and effective use of the contents of the integrated humanities of local culture will be possible. Seo, Geojeong's Gongjusipgyeong could be examined convergence contents such as history, philosophy, environment, ecology, and climatology. Multiple arts attitude and results of philosophical thought can succeed and share as the humanities sources. I think, this can be practically used as a wonderful asset which can heal social spiritual health demanding in the 4th industrial revolution era nowadays.
  • 2.

    A study on Chinese poems of Seol-Cho(雪蕉) Choi Seung-Tae(崔承太) in Gongju

    Lee Gook-Jin | 2019, 39(1) | pp.27~55 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Choi Seung-Tae(崔承太) is a plebeian poet in the middle and late 17th century. His father is Choi Gi-Nam(崔奇男) who was the leading figure of the plebeian literature. Hong Se-Tae(洪世泰) is a figure having very close relationship with Choi Seung-Tae(崔承太) and arranged the works written in his posthumous work and wrote the preface for his collection of works. The plebeian writers who engaged in the activities around Samcheong-dong(三淸洞), Seoul at that time, were depressed by the conflict and the agony due to restriction by social standing rather confirm their homogeneity acting pompously and enjoying the arts through the active literary creation activity and the exchange. However, when they were alone separated each other, they could not but realize the restriction by social standing and the impoverishment more deeply by that. Stayed in Gongju, Choi Seung-Tae(崔承太) expressed his discontent and thought derived from the reality that did not recognize his talent and the hard life in various poems to his friends and family in Hanyang. In addition, he emphasized the agony of not being used properly using actively the images such as 'Useless sword', 'Sword rusted with green rust', 'Wandering sword', etc. in his poems. However, the friends and family in Hanyang were the grateful beings who raises his collapsed self-regard again. In the meantime, Choi Seung-Tae(崔承太) could maintain the peace of mind traveling around scenic spots in Gongju. Among them traveling Gyeryongsan restored the magnanimous spirit that he thought that he had lost it. Choi Seung-Tae(崔承太) express the magnanimous spirit felt in Gyeryongsan in poem briskly utilizing the poetical style of Li Bo(李白) and the form of long poem. In other words, Gyeryongsan worked as poetic medium to imitate and release the poetic style of Li Bo(李白) and was a grateful and precious being that made him to express his magnanimous spirit fully, which he could not make it happen in reality.
  • 3.

    A Study on Geumgang Boating Chinese Poem

    Jung man-ho | 2019, 39(1) | pp.57~81 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Gongju in Chungcheongnam-do is now a small town with a population of about 100,000. However, it was renowned for its ancient, military, and transportation points during the Baekje era. In addition, it was considered military/administrative as the site of the Chungcheong Provincial Office. The Geumgang River in Gongju was one of the representative mountains and streams of Gongju along with Mt. Gyeryongsan. It was not only an important waterway for the transport of goods from the Yellow Sea to the upstream of the river, but also a place where they frequently traveled to and from Gyeonggi and Jeolla provinces. It was also famous for its historical site, as it combined with Gongsansong Fortress to form a magnificent view. Not many people remember the sight of boating on the Geumgang River as bridges were built and land transportation developed. Rather, it raises doubts that boating may have been possible based on the current appearance of the Geumgang River. However, many poem created on the Geumgang River are admired for the outstanding scenery around it and vividly depict even the spectacular boating scenes. Although it is difficult to mention the experience of Gongju in the traditional era, the ancient city of Baekje, the stopover of King Injo, is a very meaningful experience. This became a medium for the Royal Tomb of King Muryeong and other relics, as well as the Ssangsujeong and the Ssangsujeong Memorial Stone of Gongsansong Fortress, to convey to people the meaningful experience of Gongju for a long time continuously and repeatedly. Mt. Gyeryongsan is also designated as a national park, so visitors to the temple, including Gapsa and Donghaksa, visit the temple for hiking purposes. Despite the fact that Geumgang was the scenery representing the traditional Gongju, however, it lacks the medium to deliver its fame and its ancient form today. The study sought to find the boating in the Geumgang River in the poem, which is disappearing from the memory of the people, and examine the image of the Geumgang River, which was an important place in Gongju. Boating in the Geumgang River was sometimes carried out around Gongsansong Fortress and even to Baekmagang River in Buyeo. The sensibility of the places, sizes and poets where boating occurred was reviewed by separating the former as Geunyoo and the latter as Wonyoo. Boating often contains entertainment rather than reflecting the characteristics of the place compared to the poem written at the same place because it has cruising purposes. Gongju and Buyeo are Baekje’s ancient cities and have a great view in common, however, the degree of mourning for the fall of Baekje is more apparent in the Chinese poem written during the cruising of Baekmagang River.
  • 4.

    About Ganggun(剛健; the Obdurability) Appearing in JiCheon(芝川) Hwang Jeong-uk’s(黃廷彧) Literature

    jae sook Lee | 2019, 39(1) | pp.83~110 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This manuscript paid attention to the obdurability inside Hwang Jeong-uk’s literary works through his thought and intended to analyze the features in scenery of the season, progress of poetic sentiment, favorite poetic words and expressions and so on. As JiCheon’s Chinese poem reveals the methodology of cultivating YuHak (Confucianism) at the face of it, the author of this study examined it closely in relationship with the concept of Ganggun(obdurability) in <<Juyeok>>. The most important directing point in JiCheon’s life was the thought of righteousness and optimism based on Kyeonghak (Chinese classics). For this reason, he could sustain firmly despite of political isolation, political strife between factions and political slanders. The mental intention JiCheon normally pursued was revealed in his Chinese poem as it is in which he often materialized the image of strongness, tenacity, and toughness in the perpetualness of high and magnificent natural features. He used the poetic diction symbolizing perpetualness and magnificentness such as mugung(eternity), mujin(no limit), muae(freedom from all obstacles), gangpung(strong wind), manri(ten thousand), mango(eternity), manoe, cheoncheung and so on and made frequent use of the expressions presenting the spirit and ambition of the vast cheonji (heaven and earth) of palguhyungjung. The obdurability appearing in JiCheon’s poem has a close relation with his spirit and viewpoint looking at the natural features and his inner world. You can feel his attitude of overcoming his needy circumstances and imitating the greatness of the nature while watching the nature’s race and spectacles. The study examined JiCheon’s spirit like this with regard to the behaviors of great character and noble man implied in <<Juyeok>>’s <Gongae> and <Geongae>.
  • 5.

    Study on Lee Kyung-yu’s poetic-literary viewpoint - Focused on the 『Changhaesian(滄海詩眼)』

    CHO JEONG YUN | 2019, 39(1) | pp.111~136 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The 『Changhaesian(滄海詩眼)』, which Lee Kyung-yu (1750~1821), a writer of Yeongnam area wrote in the late of Chosun Dynasty, is a book about remarks on poetry which recorded criticism about poetry of many generations of China and Chosun. In this paper, I examined thoroughly basic recognition and intention about Lee Kyung-yu’s poetic literature shown in poetics and criticism of 『Changhaesian』. Lee Kyung-yu recognized Seong-Tang(盛唐) as one of the climaxes in the history of Chinese poem and, in particular, Chinese history of literary development. He evaluated Tu Fu’s poem as the best among the poems in the Seong Tang Dynasty because he considered the extremes of poetry’s craftsmanship was achieved. Lee Kyung-yu emphasized Haja(下字) as a requirement for constructing crafted poems, and regarded the importance of natural and subtle Daewoo(對偶) and last phrase Gyeolgu(結句) in Gubeob(句法). In addition, he considered it as important to select and use novel and unique poetic words while the characteristics, individuality, and spirit of the subject were well embodied in expression. Cheong(淸) and Ah(雅) appear in numerous cases as a complimentary piece of work that has shown excellent poetic achievement in 『Changhaesian』 . This means that Lee expressed clear and clean nature as the high-level mental boundary and highly valued the graceful, upright, and unworldly poems. In addition, he showed that he was oriented towards these poems of distinctive characters in creative writing.
  • 6.

    Yeonhaeng (Travel to Yanjing) of 1836 and 『Gyeongoyuyeonilrok』 - Contents and Reality of Exchange between Intellectuals in Joseon and China -

    Choi-Sik | 2019, 39(1) | pp.137~169 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The exchange of intellectuals in Joseon and China had gradually expanded after Hong Dae-yong met the literary men of Hangzhou in Beijing in 1766 to enter into the Cheonaejigi (special friend in far distance away). In general, the exchange of intellectuals in Joseon and China was made in direct method through Yeonhaeng and indirect method through the agency of a person. Furthermore, it is not possible to participate in Yeonhaeng every time that most cases involved indirect exchange through the agency of a person. 『Gyeongoyuyeonilrok』 displays the details on the aspect for the exchange of intellectuals in Joseon and China at the time. According to the statements of Jin Lim of the time, it displays the atmosphere of the time for the situation of China that desires the exchange with envoys of Joseon and yet to be unwilling to accept the envoys of Joseon with the tyranny of Eosa (royal emissary). Furthermore, it specifically requested not to misunderstand since Joseon had no suspicion and estrangement as it was different from other countries. This fact demonstrates that the intellectuals of China at that time considered the Joseon's envoys as well-known scholars to treat them with special privilege with the hope of communicating and establishing relationships. First, the roles of Kim Jung-hee and Kang Jin were sensed as they carried out the bridging role as well as establishing the exchange relations for intellectuals in Joseon and China. Looking into the case of Im Baek-yeon, it is considered to attempt the exchange with Kang Jin-bo and Jin Lim who had the acquaintance with Kang Jin after leaning the presence of Chinese intellectuals with the introduction of Kim Jung-hee and Kang Jin. In particular, people like Kang Jin-bo and Jin Lim are considered to carry out significant roles for the Joseon's envoys to exchange with the Chinese intellectuals. Second, the Chinese personnel that Im Baek-yeon met in the Yeonhaeng route would be around 20 persons, and even if Kang Jin-bo and Jin Lim who are mentioned earlier are excluded, there were close relations with Oh Gyun, Yo Ham, Wang See-Son with active exchanges. It displays not only the exchange of chidu (letters and mails), poetry and literacy and presents, but also the contents and reality of the exchange of intellectuals in Joseon and China to the fullest. In addition, in the publication of 『Sangganpyeon』, Hwang Jak-ja, Han Wun-hae and others were personally participated. Third, the personal agency in Yeonhaeng displays the scenes of significant exchange of chidu (letters and mails), poetry and literacy and presents of intellectuals in Joseon and China. Yeonhaeng of 1836 had the indirect exchange and its appearance can be confirmed in 『Gyeongoyuyeonilrok』. The items taken from Hanyang to Beijing show writing (Cho Gwang-jin), literary collection (『Haegeosicho』, Kim Yang-soon Sigwon (ansers in national examination), Jeonbyeolsichuk (「Sinchwimitaesajamyusicheop」), letter (letter of An Young) and others. On the other hand, for the items imported from Beijing to Hanyang, there are a variety of items with yangjangcheoltaeyeop, cigarette, brush, ink, folding fan (Ban Seok-eun - writing, Jang Sang-ji - writing, Hong Hyun-joo) writing (Oh Gyun Jang Chuk), collection of literature (『Samaesuksijip』, 『Juyeokcheonyo』, 『Yumuncheongongjip』, 『Songhaksaseunggi』), seal impression (‘Wangheesonin’), letter and gift (Cho Byung-goo, Bang Hee-yong, and Hong Seok-joo) and others. And, fourth, the writing and publication of 『Sangganpyeon』 was a remarkable incident for exchange of the intellectuals in Joseon and China. From the Yeonhaeng travel of the time, 15 poems from 8 persons were selected to publish a total of 27-je 120-soo on 『Sangganpyeon』 on the wooden block copy in Beijing. At that time, Hwang Jak-ja and Han Wun-hae also participated in the publication of 『Sangganpyeon』 that Hwang Jak-ja worked on editing as well as writing Soseo while Han Wun-hae wrote the book cover to place on the engraving plate. At that time, the publication of 『Sangganpyeon』 seemed to attract attention of intellectuals in Joseon and China. Because of such an attribute, Im Baek-yeon requested to clarify its innate intent of engraving plate and not to render any excessive implication. It is confirmed in the statement of ‘Buljibonui, Gangsaengchweyeja, Hajokhyulya, Yeokhajokbyeonya?’. In addition, 『Sangganpyeon』 for Dongjisahaeng in 1833 had profound relations to 『Yeonsasuceop』, a poetry collection on Yeonhaeng that was advocated by Jeongsa (Head Official) Cho Bong-jin, Busa (Deputy Official) Park Rae-gyeon and entourage Choi Heon-soo. Furthermore, 『Sangganpyeon』 influences on later generations that Shin Jwa-mo, in his Yeonhaeng of 1860 as Dongjijeongsa, to send his well-wishing remark of “Sangseogeumhaeng, Jeongyusangganskjip, Sabangjeonsa, Sanggyeongjigwi.” in his poem to Shin Seok-woo. It is deemed to be the passage expected for writing work as in 『Sangganpyeon』 of Shin Jae-sik in Yeonhaeng since Shin Seok-woo was a nephew of Shin Jae-sik.
  • 7.

    A Study on Sino-Korean Poetry of Gim Rip Contained in Munhaksasang

    Gu, Bon Hyeon | 2019, 39(1) | pp.171~203 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Difficulties in research on Gim Rip[金笠] also known as Gim Sat-gat[김삿갓] come from two main reasons. One is that it is difficult to distinguish whether Gim is referring to Gim Byeong-yeon[金炳淵] or several poets of similar age. This is due to the fact that there are no documented records of Gim's life. Second is the authenticity of Gim's works. Since the works created before the name 'Gim rip' was talked about were misinformed as Gim rip's, the historical investigation must be made thoroughly. Most of what is said to be Gim's works is based on the efforts of Li Eung-su[李應洙] during the Japanese colonial era. Li collected and organized Gim's poems and published three versions of Gim’s anthology. Later, Gim's new works were discovered and introduced from time to time, and the most notable among them is Gim's 12 poems in Muhaksasang[文學思想] the February issue of 1983. The reason for this is as follows. First, we can find a few evidences indicating that the author named 'Gim Rip' is Gim Byeong-yeon. There is a poem indicated the author as ‘Nan-go’, the nickname of Gim Byeon-yeon. Poetry given to Gim Hoi-myeong[金會明], who was serving as a governor of Yeonggwang[靈光], shows that the author had known Gim Hoi-myeong before. Considering that Gim Hoi-myung and Gim Byeong-yeon are from Andong Gim family, the author of the poem can be considered Gim Byung-yeon. Second, the works created in Yeonggwang and Gokseong[谷城] are included. These areas are close to Hwasun[和順] where Gim Byeong-yeon stayed for a while and died in 1863. Therefore, through the review on these poems, the traces of Gim's later years can be verified in more details. Third, There are four Yeongmulsi[詠物詩] that can be compared with Gim's another works that reveal Gim's poetic talent and individuality. Gim was famous for his Yeongmulsi which reveal new perspectives and novel expressions on surrounding things. This feature is also reflected in the Yeongmulsi in Munhaksasang.
  • 8.

    A study on the writing of Sonji Hong-jaegu

    SHIN YOHAN | 2019, 39(1) | pp.205~232 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to examine Sonji Hong-jaegu's writings. Hong-jaegu is a member of Hwaseo(華西) School. He is a disciple of Kim pyeongmuk. Hwaseo(華西) School promoted defending orthodoxy and rejecting heterodoxy(衛正斥邪) with stabilizing the government and strengthening the national defense(內修外攘). He succeeded this idea. His writings have this same idea. This paper examines his work in terms of stabilizing the government and strengthening the national defense. 『Jeongsoksinpyeon(正俗新編)』 and 『Gyemongyolam(啓蒙要覽)』 were classified as stabilizing the governmen. 『Wijeongsinseo (衛正新書)』 and 『Sikhanjinjeon(息閑眞詮)』 were classified as strengthening the national defense. 『Jeongsoksinpyeon』 and 『Gyemongyolam』 are an explanation of the Oryun(五倫), the basic idea of Confucianism. 『Wijeongsinseo』 is a compilation of books related to defending orthodoxy and rejecting heterodoxy. 『Sikhanjinjeon』 is an article criticizing Catholic doctrine. In the above, I looked at the writing activity of Hong-jaegu. For further study of Hong-jaegu, constant review of his writings is needed.
  • 9.

    A Study on of Heokun’s Dongjungbu

    huangliang | 2019, 39(1) | pp.233~254 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Sabu is very important Genre in the Chinese literature. Also have been Many work’s in the korea, but hav’nt attract public attention. Isn’t only on study Sabu loss but All of the Korean chinese litterature. Attention for Dongjungbu is not only Sabu but Fullness all of the Heokun’s litterature. I want by study of Heokun’s Dongjungbu not only He’s works but make clear Sabu’s model. It certain, There is close correlation between Sabu and Kasa. About this Comparative literature work is certainly help on study Kasa. I wish by this study make a contribution to Korean Sabu.
  • 10.

    A Study about the language characteristtics of the poetic works -written by the poet Hanshan(寒山)-

    Park,Ro-Heyn | 2019, 39(1) | pp.255~282 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is focused on a study about the language characteristics of the poetic works written by the poet Hanshan(寒山) who was said to have survived around the periods of 785-804 A.D during the Chinese Tang Dynasty. Hanshan(寒山) or Hanshanja(寒山子) name was derived from the seclusive lifestyle he lived at Han-Ahm(寒岩), Mt. Tiantai(天台山) in China. There are a number of debatable records which are said to represent an interactive relationship with monks(豊干, 拾得) at the Gukcheong-Temple, Mt Tiantai, however Hanshan's birth name as well as actual existence has yet to be confirmed. Hanshan's poetry gained a new form of popularity amongst the civilians after the period of Tang dynasty, especially resulting in his poetry being highly admired in the Buddhist community, many editions emerged during the proceeding Song and Ming dynasties. By the Qing dynasty, also publishing in Quan Tangshi(『全唐詩』) and Siku Quanshu(『四庫全書』), Hanshan poems which are currently still in existence are said to be as many as 300 while still maintaining its fame for approximately one thousand years to date. Examining the characteristics of Hanshan poems(寒山詩), the first one entails the use of Buddhist terminology. It is common knowledge that all of his work is heavily influenced by the realm of Buddhism, resulting as the most undeniably outstanding characteristic. The second characteristic is the use of Taoist terminology reflected within his poems. After suffering internal frustration due to his failed state examination, he was left in a state of aimless wandering as a result he became deeply converted into Taoism. Hanshan's journey through Taoism was projected onto many of his works and the content within his poems also came to be filled with distinct Taoist features. The third characteristic is the use of popular terminology during this era. Retiring to a lifestyle of hermitage at Han-Am(寒岩), Mt. Tiantai, while being separated from secular affairs, Hanshan used various popular terminology within his poetry of his old reminiscent days, when he spent quality time with his family while looking for wealth and prosperity. Hanshan's usage of popular terminology in his work, resulted in a more simplistic production of poetry, which left a more realistic and lively presence compared to other fellow poets.
  • 11.

    A Criticism of Yang-Ming Studies Mok-jae Hong Yeo-ha

    KIM HEE YOUNG | 2019, 39(1) | pp.283~303 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    In the 17th century Jo-seon academia, you can see Zhu-zi Studies who have faith in the subject of the subject ostracizing the subject of studies other than the subject. On the other hand, after two wars, those who were skeptical of the subject came across a different study from that of the subject. At this time of the influx of various academic thought, the atmosphere for Anti-Yang-ming Studies rose relatively as there were one or two scholars who were positive about it. However, the criticism around this time has yet to be seen by scholars who fully understand Yang-Ming Studies and have developed arguments based on it. Nor can there be any major deviation from the previously criticized discussion left by Lee Hwang. Hong Yeo-ha left three articles criticizing Yang-Ming studies from the standpoint of Zhu-zi. In 「題陽明集後」, academic admiration for the Zhu-zi Studies was revealed. This is part of his academic orientation. He claimed following the fact that through this article identified. First, the method of study through books was revealed implicitly, emphasizing the method of study of subject matter. Second, Wang Su-in's theory of Qiyangji[致良知]was denied by emphasizing the method of Zhu-zi' studies by giving legitimacy to the theory that the theory of Zhu-zi's study was a desirable method of study. In 「題陽明集朱子晩年定論後」, the following points were found. First, Hong Yeo-ha sees Wang Su-in as a Buddhist, not a Confucian scholar. Second, the Zhu-zi criticized that he was repentant and enlightened in his later years to write as if he had been united with him. He also confirmed his criticism of Wang Su-in by writing in defense of what he saw as the old age's political theory, as he had kept his usual words together. Third, he emphasizes the study method that emphasizes the importance of "Following the path of study and inquiry[道問學]" in the subject's study, saying that after "Following the path of study and inquiry[道問學]" you have to think accurately and practice hard to achieve "true Honoring the moral nature[尊德性]." He also criticized Yang-Ming academic methods, saying, "There is a certain turn in the study stage," as Zhu-zi’s says, "It is not possible to reach adult status all of a sudden." In 「尊性齋記」, it was wrong to define the academic method of Zhu-zi studies and the academic method of Yook Gu-yeon's as 'Honoring the moral nature[尊德性]' and to understand it as it was during the Yuan and Ming Dynasties that. Therefore, it should not be understood that the method of study of the Zhu-zi is divided in such a dichotomous way that it is only one side of 'Following the path of study and inquiry[道問學]' and that it should be understood that it is learned first and then moved forward to Honoring the moral nature[尊德性]. Hong Yeo-ha also also stressed, Yook Gu-yeon must be well-educated and well-groomed even if the qualities she received from heaven are great growth.' Even the Zhu-zi who Hong Yeo-ha praised for correcting his studies in order to fill his own deficiencies, and Yook Gu-yeon criticized him, citing his lack of virtue Through the above three articles, we confirmed the criticism of Yang Ming-hak by Hong Yeo-ha, a Confucian scholar of the 17th century.
  • 12.

    Ideas of Discipline in 『Sohak』 and Pursuit for the Healing Reading of those Ideas -Focusing on child education-

    Jun Yeon Woo | 2019, 39(1) | pp.305~338 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study started with particular questions. Is a modern succession of classics possible? If so, how can the succession be made?. Based on these questions, the study put its purpose on determining which points of 『Sohak』 are applicable to modern child education, especially in relation to personal character. The acceptance of 『Sohak』 in Joseon had something to do with the nation’s introduction or development of Confucian civilization. In Joseon, specifically, intellectuals employed 『Sohak』 as disciplinary guidelines for daily life and, thereon, began to put their lenses on the lives of individuals that were members of society as a whole. Since then, people of the country drew out essential ideas of practical discipline from 『Sohak』, and the ideas became the very basis of practical ethics. This implies that there could be some points where 『Sohak』 and modern child education are associated with each other. Today, child education often puts its first priority on leading children to settle socially desirable basic habits in their life. This is why 『Sohak』 as a classic literature on discipline may be now given a new meaning, for the literature is potentially in harmony with modern child education. The contents of 『Sohak』, especially those of its two sections like 「Gyeongsin」 and 「Myeongryun」 have much in common with contents related to basic life that are provided by modern child education. In this sense, it is time to read 『Sohak』 in a different way other than before. So far, 『Sohak』 has usually been read for the purpose of extracting ethical ideas. But now, a new different reading of the classic literature is needed for the purpose of contributing to readers’ establishment of self-esteem. The new reading is often referred to as ‘healing reading’, by which this study could reach a conclusion that 『Sohak』 provides critical points which emphasize the establishment of self and interpersonal relations on the basis of self-regulation is the key to socialization. However, those points are still in the stage of discussion. Further research should be made, this study hopes.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Interpretation and Classification of '古' and '昔' as Time Words

    Keoung-Suk Lee , Moon, Chi-Ung | 2019, 39(1) | pp.339~365 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This essay refers to many scripts and ancient texts, The interpretation of the letters of 古辞辨 and 甲骨文, and the interpretation of 『說文解字』. By exploring the historical interpretations of '古' and '昔' in 『孟子』, I have considered the details, regulations, interpretations, and divisions of time and times in “古” and “昔”. '古' can be divided into upper, middle, and lower ages through scripts and ancient texts. Especially, the upper age is a far-distant past of mankind. I could tell. In 『古 辞 辨』, though, he did not directly compare and analyze “古” and “昔”. However, the description is relatively detailed. The emphasis is on “old”, which refers to a long time ago and the past. ‘昔’, along with this meaning, includes the past, yesterday, and the near past. Comprehensive explanations of the Chinese characters and the explanations of the Chinese characters and the characters of 『說文解字』, ‘古’ holds information such as shields, solid armor, wars, and stories. In the sense that the story was passed down from mouth to mouth long ago, the past was created. ‘昔’ refers to information such as the flood, long ago, past, and dried meats. This information expresses the meaning of long time ago, past past, near past, and yesterday. You can find '古' and '昔' in 孟子. ‘古’ is used to express 夏殷周 and 春秋時代. In particular, it is a word commonly used to praise people related to 周王朝. ‘昔’ appears to expand in time. Yesterday, near past, 春秋時代, 殷, 夏, 堯舜 times. Like ‘古’, it was also used to discuss a character that could be admired over many times.