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Tiger Disaster and National Countermeasures in Joseon Dynasty - Analysis of 「Chakho Jeolmok」 -

  • The Review of Korean History
  • 2008, (91), pp.189-223
  • Publisher : The Historical Society Of Korea
  • Research Area : Humanities > History

Cho, Gyeyoung 1

1서울대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

In Joseon Dynasty, casualties to men and cattle caused by tigers is called 'Hohwan (虎患; Tiger Disaster)' and to capture tigers is called 'Poho (捕虎; Capturing Tigers)' or 'Chakho (捉虎; Catching Tigers)'. Since the Tiger Disaster was directly connected with public security which secures public welfare, the nation had promulgated 「Poho Jogeon(捕虎條件)」, 「Chakho Samok(捉虎事目)」 and 「Chakho Jeolmok(捉虎節目)」, as a part of countermeasure against the problem. Those different names, 'Jogeon, Samok and Jeolmok', are basically the same as detailed enforcement regulations to capture tigers. In this paper, I analyzed 「Chakho Jeolmok」 promulgated in Joseon Dynasty and considered how the nation coped with central and local tiger disasters. In the early Joseon period, Chakho-gapsa (guardsmen) and Chakho-jang (leaders) took charge of capturing tigers in central area, and Chakho-in (捉虎人; men who caught tigers) of local area were operated under 「Poho Jogeon」 stated by Byeong-jo (Military Affairs) in 1472. In the late Joseon period, under military system changed, Hullyeon-dogam (Military Training Agency), Geumwiyeong (Capital Garrison) and Eoyeong-cheong (Capital Guard Units) were in charge of capturing tigers, and 「Chakho Jeolmok」 was repeatedly announced over central and local areas to cope with emergent disaster. The new version of 「Chakho Jeolmok」 was released, in which some rules of existing 「Chakho Jeolmok」 that did not applicable to the circumstances was revised and supplemented. The revision was mainly carried out in articles such as a reward for Chakho-in and capturing methods, and this was to encourage the people to capture tigers.

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