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The Origin of Thoughts on Rule by means of Filial Piety and Its Developments in Korea

  • Journal of Korean Hyo Studies
  • 2014, (19), pp.1-29
  • Publisher : The Korean Hyo Studies Association
  • Research Area : Humanities > Other Humanities

김해영 1

1수원대학교

Candidate

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to investigate the origin of thoughts on rule by means of filial piety and its development process in Korea. Filial piety(孝, “Hyo”) is one of essential concepts in Confucian thoughts. That is, filial piety is the foundation for ethics as well as a start. Confucianists believe that when affection of parents and filial piety of their children are demonstrated in a righteous manner, a sense of unity between father and son shall be established. When fraternity and brotherly love of elder brotherhood and politeness of younger brotherhood, and understanding as those above and obedience as those below are rightly materialized, the orders between brothers as well as a sense of order in society shall be firmly established. And that when rightness of husbandship and virtue of wifeliness are rightly visualized, the role sharing between husband and wife will be harmonized, and that when the love of the leaders who stay true to their role and mission and loyalty of those below are rightly realized, the just society can be established. In that sense, this research looked into the filial piety asserted by Confucius-Mencius; the ruling with filial piety in Han Dynasty(漢代); the governance by filial piety during Dangun(檀君) and Three-kingdom Era(三國時代); and the governance by filial piety during Goryeo(高麗) until the reign of King Jeong-Jo(正祖), and closely examined if there existed some similarities and differences among them. Specifically, the study tried to figure out how Thoughts on Rule by means of Filial Piety(孝治思想, “Hyochi Sasang”) in Korea are different from Confucian’s logic such as “There are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion. The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filial piety and fraternal submission, are they not the root of all benevolent actions?" In consequence, this research confirmed that the thoughts on the rule by means of filial piety and its development process in Korea and those that asserted by Confucius and Mencius are not separate issues. However, it shall be required self-reflection in view of the fact that the ruling with filial piety may act like a double-edged sword depending upon the man who uses it. This is a repeated remark on the virtue concerned with interpersonal relationship, meanwhile, in the Book Of Rites(“Yegi” 禮記), close connections had been established between the virtues such as affection of parents and filial piety of children; good and kind-hearted of elder brother and respect and politeness of younger brother; generosity as those above and obedience as those below; righteousness of husband and virtue of wife; benevolence of ruler and loyalty of subjects. Also the study found a solution from the Confucius’ reply to the question of the duke Jing, of Qi(齊景公), to wit, “There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father is father, and the son is son." (君君,臣臣,父父,子子, “Gun-gun, Sin-sin, Bu-bu, Ja-ja”). It is necessary to note the key point that the rule with filial piety begins with, no other than, the ethics between father and son in that parents firstly care their children with love and grace, so then the children will pay their filial devotion to their parents in turn, namely, the ethics based on mutually beneficial relationship(互惠倫理, “Hohye Yunri”)

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