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A Study on the Battle Order of the Silla Forces in the Battle of Hwangsanbeol - Committed Troops, Commander, and Number of Troops -

Yoon, il- young 1

1대전대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The Battle of Hwangsabeol was the battle at Hwangsanwon(黃山原 :Hwangsanbeol) between the Silla Forces and the Baekje Forces on the ninth day of the seventh month in AD 660 by the lunar calendar (August 20 according to the solarcalendar) during the 7th ruling year of King Muyeol. However, inspite of a lot of concerns for this combat from the academic circles, the reality of The Battle of Hwangsabeol has not been restored yet. With the aim of restoring The Battle of Hwangsabeol, this research is going to distinguish the name of the combat unit Silla troops sent in at the Hwangsanbeol battlefield, and the name of a commander, and clarify the number of troops by combat unit, and a total number of troops. In addition, this research analyzed the two examples in which Silla sent in to the counter-Baekje fighting with the aim of inquiring into the name of the combat unit which Silla troops put to the Hwangsanbeol battlefield. The first example is the account that at the time of August in the 46 th ruling year of King Jinpyong(AD 624) when Baekje besieged Sokham Castle(速含城), Bongjam Castle(烽岑城), Aengjam Castle(櫻岑城), and Kihyeon Castle(旗懸城),Silla put 4 combat units such asSangjujeong(上州停) Guidang(貴幢), Hajujeong(下州停), and Seodang(誓幢), etc. The second example is the account that at the time of spring in Februaryin the 8th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 661) when Baekje Revival forces attacked Sabi Castle(泗泌城), Silla reinforced its forces by adding Daedang(大幢), Nangdang(郎幢),and Namcheonjeong(南川停) to the existing Sangjujeong Guidang(貴幢), Hajujeong(下州停), and Seodang(誓幢). As shown in the second example, the fact that Silla additionally sent in three combat units to the battlefield suggests that Silla might need a lot more combatunits in attacking Baekje Sabi Castle than in attacking Sokham Castle, Bongjam Castle, Aengjam Castle, and Kihyeon Castle. Here, it's necessary for us to look atthe above-mentioned case that happened in the spring of February during the 8th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 661). Silla fought a battle against the troops led by general Gyebaek(階伯) of Baekjeat the Hwangsanbeol on July 9 by lunar calendar on their march to attack the Sabi Castle of Baekje in alliance with Tangon July 12 by lunar calendar in the7th year reign of King Muyeol(AD 660). At that time, the size of the Silla combat forces might have been similar to that of the combat units which were put when the Baekje Revival Forces attacked the Sabi Castle in February during the 8th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 661). The reason for such a guess is that the military objective(the occupation of Sabi Castle) of Silla troops on July 9(by the lunar calendar) marking the 7th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 660) and that of Silla troops in the spring of July 9(by lunar calendar)marking the 8th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 661); in short, premising that Silla mobilized their combat units into Baekje territory in order to achieve the same military objective(the occupation of Sabi Castle) on July 9(by thelunarcalendar) marking the 7th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 660) and February by lunar calendar in the 8th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 661), it can be concluded that the size of mobilized troops might be almost the same. The second reason for such a guessis that if Silla tried to attack the Sabi Castle in February in the 8th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 661), Silla might intend to put experienced combat units which had entered the Battle of Hwangsanbeo land the attack on Sabi Castle already in July by lunar calendar in the 7th ruling year of King Muyeol. In other words, Silla might try to put the combat units once again which had entered the Battle of Hwangsanbeolon July 9 by the lunar calendar in the 7th ruling year of King Muyeo land attacked the Sabi Castle on July 12 by the lunar calendar, in February in the 8th ruling year of King Muyeol. Like this, when making inferences based on the military objective and experience in war entry, it is estimated that the Silla mobilized combat units which were put into the attack on Sabi Castle in February in the 8th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 661) and in July in the 7th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 660) might be the same. Accordingly, the Silla-mobilized combat units into the Hwangsanbeol battlefield on July 9 in the 7th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 660)might have been Daedang, Sangjujeong, Guidang, Hajujeong, Seodang, Nangdang, and Namcheonjeong, etc. By the way, here is one more dispatched combat unit we have to consider additionally; that is the mobilization of Saseoldang. Silla entered the Battle of Hwangsanbeolon July 9 by lunar calendar in the 7th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 660) and attacked the Sabi Castleon July 9 by lunar calendarin alliance with Tang. Then, Silla might need a castle attacking unit to attach the Sabi Castle. Due to such necessity, Silla troops might definitely be accompanied by a specialized unit for attacking a castle. Silla, at the time of July by lunar calendar in the 7th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 660), was possessed of the specialized units for attacking a castle such as Saseoldang(四設幢:Nodang弩幢, Wunjedang雲梯幢,Chungdang衝幢, and Seoktudang石投幢). Accordingly, Silla troops might be accompanied by Saseoldang(四設幢) in time of the Battle of Hwangsanbeol and putitinto the combatin time of attack on the Sabi Castle. Thus, the number of combat units Silla put into the Hwangsanbeol battlefield on July 9 by the lunar calendar in the 7th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 660) were 8, including ① Daedang(大幢) ② Sangjujeong(上州停) ③ Guidang(貴幢) ④ Hajujeong(下州停) ⑤ Seodang(誓幢) ⑥ Nangdang(郎幢) ⑦ Namcheonjeong(南川停) ⑧ Saseoldag(四設幢:Nodang弩幢, Wunjedang雲梯幢, Chungdang衝幢, Seoktudang石投幢). Meanwhile, this research made an analysis of the personnel records for generals in Silla based on the Chronicles of the Three States in order to clarify the name of the generals who commanded their combat units dispatched into the Hwangsanbeol battlefield. As the result of analysis, this research identified 18 generals, who commanded the combat units including ① Daedang ② Sangjujeong ③ Guidang ④ Hajujeong ⑤ Seodang ⑥ Nangdang ⑦ Namcheonjeong which were put into the Hwangsanbeol battlefield on July 9 by lunar calendar in the 7th ruling year of King Muyeol(AD 660), as follows: In short, there existed four generals belonging to Daedang including Kim Yu-shin, Munwang, Yangdang, and Munyoung, etc. ; the 4generals belonging to Sangjujeong include Kim Pum-il, Munchung, Jinwang, and Kim Heum-dol; the4 generals belonging to Guidang include Kim Heum-chun, Jin-Heum, Cheonjon, and Juk-Ji, etc; the 2 generals belonging to Hajujeong include Uibok, Junshin etc.;the 2 generals belonging to Seodang include Munpum and Jinbok, etc., and the 2 generals belonging to Nangdang include Uikwang, and Jongjeong. In addition, the number of Dang-grade units(100-soldiergrade) which Silla put into the Hwangsanbeol battlefield was 257. The total number of military troops which were put into the Hwangsanbeol battlefield was 34,658, among which the number of combat support troops was 4,500). For reference, the number of the combat troops Baekje put into the Hwangsanbeol battlefield was 5,000. That the number of military unit troops which general Gyebaek commanded was 5,000 means that this unit was one military unit corresponding to 6-jeong grade unit and Seodang-gradeunit. In addition, total numbers of the troops which Baekje mobilized in time of the Silla-Baekje Waron July by the lunar calendar AD 660 were 60,000.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.