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A Study on the Eight Guards System of Balhae

Kang, Sung-Bong 1

1성균관대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

Balhae(渤海) corresponds to a stretch of the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, the northeast part of China, and the Maritime Province of Russiain modern times. It took on the socioeconomic character based on farming combined with hunting, and fishing. Also, a majority of ruled class was a multiracial country which was composed of malgal tribes(靺鞨族). Thus, the rulers of Balhae tried to establish the military system based on socia land economic structures to secure stable ruling system. Its Eight Guards System, therefore, can be said to have resulted from the social organization based on the economic life of combining farming with hunting which was projected as it was on the military system. A study on the system has important significance in examining the character of the society closely. Chapter 2 reexamined ten and eight guards theories related to the military system. The result showed that Balhae had organized EightGuards(8衛), the military system, by transforming Tang's(唐) guards system besides the elements such as malgal's eight native camps or parts. Chapter 3 analysed the ambassadors dispatched to Tang who secured military officer position from the country in the period of Muwang(武王). Also, it explored the system improved overall in central political machinery and local system in the period of Munwang(文王). The result revealed that the Eight Guards System, as Balhae's military system, was formed in the period. Chapter 4 first divided Balhae's military officer position broadly into the ones of three periods and made a comparative study with Tang's military officer position ranks. Also, it briefly examined relevant historical materials which enabled me to presume the scale of Balhae's military organization. Regarding the supplement of military force it explained mainly the Fifteen Parts(15府) as Balhae's local system by dividing it into three types of military systems. On the other hand, a comparative study with Tang's military system allowed me to presume the role of the Eight Guards System. There sult showed that in Balhae the Left and Right Fierce and Great Guards(左右猛賁衛) kept the royal palace all night, that the Left and Right Bear Guards(左右熊衛) and the Left and Right Big Bear Guards(左右羆衛) fulfilled the duty of defending the capital, and that the Southern and Northern Left and Right Guards(南北左右衛) played the role as royal guards.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.