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A Semantic Analysis on the Chinese Adverb HAI

  • The Journal of Study on Language and Culture of Korea and China
  • Abbr : JSLCKC
  • 2016, (42), pp.163-193
  • DOI : 10.16874/jslckc.2016..42.007
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Study on Chinese Languge and Culture
  • Research Area : Humanities > Chinese Language and Literature
  • Published : October 31, 2016

Lee, Eunsoo 1

1원광대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The Chinese Adverb HAI has a lot of meanings, and some meanings seem to be contradictory to each other. So scholars have been interested in how these meanings are related. Scholars such as Liu(2000) and Gao(2002) often claim that the basic meaning of HAI is ‘persistent’, and that the proposition containing HAI makes a stronger statement. But we show that this claim cannot explain many other instances containing HAI, especially the instances in the ‘Bi(比) construction’ and the instances meaning ‘low in scale.’ In this paper, we try to relate various meanings of HAI. The basic meaning of HAI is ‘persistent through time.’ But we argue that HAI can also have an implicature of ‘not be changed to different state.’ These two meanings are related to other meanings of HAI. First of all, the ‘persistent through time’ meaning is related to ‘persistent through change of condition’ meaning. The instances of HAI in the ‘Bi(比) construction’ can be considered as the instances that have ‘conditional meaning.’ ‘Counter to expectation’ meaning also comes from this ‘conditional meaning.’ HAI can have an implicature which means ‘not be changed to different state,’ depending on the context. This meaning of HAI usually appears in the context which is associated with the different state after the reference point. In addition, the ‘low in scale’ meaning can also be considered to come from this meaning.

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