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A study on the Chronology of chinese(Song~Yuan) Spoons - tenancy Fishtail-edge spoon -

정의도 1

1한국문물연구원

Accredited

ABSTRACT

Most of the spoons of Song and Won Dynasties, China, have been found from Buddhist temples or sites, tombs, and underground treasure pits. This work is trying to classify the periodical orders of the artefacts which contain the absolute time period and then the results of this work may be beneficial to understand spoons of Goryeo and Joseon in Korea. Spoons of Song Dynasty seemed to maintain the tradition of Tang Dynasty without any big changes in its shape, but the edge of the grip begun to wide in the triangle shape. This change can be also found from the Liao Empire, Northern Region, and the decorations were appeared in the wide part of the edge such as pair of fishes or the edge was shaped like the webbed feet of duck. This tendency is definitely different from the broadened spoon edge of North and South Song Dynasties. It seemed that this wide edge finally influenced late Liao Empire and the shape of swallowtail (two divided edge) had been launched since then. From the "Chinese Spoon and Chopsticks Chronological Order" research result which was identified by the writer, it can be highly likely that this kind of swallowtail edge had been started from late Liao Empire and then settled in the Jin Dynasty(Jurchen) until Won Dynasty. The name of 'swallowtail' has been given as of its two divided edge shape. When it comes to review the ones from Liao Empire and Song Dynasty, the edge seemed to be widened. The spoon found from the Yojinguk Princess Tomb of those periods, has clearly distinctive edge shape with pair of fish decoration. Firstly, it has been widened with the fish body inscription and then secondly the tail of the fishes were added which result broadening the edge shape further. Therefore these two steps of widened edge finally found from the 'swallowtail' edge spoons in Sonhwayo Tomb M3, M1 mural painting, and Jin Dynasty(Jurchen). This is also important to signify the fish decoration. Usually fish decoration appeared as a pair and this is because fish pair represent male and female or a couple's amalgamation and happiness which finally draw a large offspring prosperity. Particularly the mirrors with pair fish decorations were very popular during the Jin Dynasty(Jurchen). Engraving the pair fish to the spoon edge had been started from the Liao Empire and then it influenced the Jin Dynasty (Jurchen) more broadly. After the decoration was introduced to the Jin, it seemed that people made the decoration more simplified which resulted the swallowtail-edged spoon. Therefore, swallowtail-edge was only named because of its shape. But this is more important to point out that its shape is actually descended from the fish pair. The name of swallowtail-edge then can be named as a "fish-tail edge". In the mean time, these kinds of fish-tail edges seemed to be found from late 13th Goryeo Dynasty. The "x" shape scissors found from Goryeo tombs were also fall into late 13th century and this result is widely accepted in the archaeological field. However, fish-tail edge spoon was already appeared in early 12th century in China and even 'x' shape scissors were found in late 11th or early 12th century. It should be highlighted that Jin Dynasty(Jurchen) and Goryeo had long-time international exchanges without any disruption. Potteries and mirrors were also imported consecutively but the 'fish-tail edge' spoons were imported after a century. Big question was lied here. Why those spoons and scissors which were found in 12th century in China had appeared in Korea after late 13th century?It is so difficult to answer this big question right now and there is such a huge gap of a century. I will let the question be answered any time soon.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.