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The History and Construction of Gupo Waeseong

Donguck Na 1

1부산근대역사관

Accredited

ABSTRACT

Construction of Gupo Waeseong was started in early July in the 26th year of King Seonjo (1593) and was completed by September 25th of the same year, during the Imjinwaeran(壬辰倭亂) Period. Chief Director Kobayagawa Takakage and five Japanese generals cooperated to construct it. During the Jeongyujaeran (丁酉再亂) Period, in March in the 31st year of King Seonjo (1598), it was temporarily repaired by Mori Hidemoto but was abolished when the Japanese army evacuated in May of the same year. Location-wise, it can be called󰡐Riverside type󰡑since it is located in the mainstream of Nakdong-River and is mainly divided into a main castle of the northern part and a outwall of the southern part. Considering its layout, the main castle is to be called a mixed type of Rinkakushiki(the type of castles with concentric moats) and Teikakushiki(the type of castles with ladder-shaped compound plan) while the outwall is understood to be Rinkakushiki. Like other Japanese castles its wall was constructed without space by using natural stones and splitting ones properly. The height of its wall is about 1.5-7m and the gradient of the wall is about 65-70 degrees. Except for the northern wall and southern wall of the east part of the main fortress of the main building, the building method of the Anoutsumi(穴太積) type which is shown in other Japanese castles was used. A method of Cross piling called Sangitsumi (算木積) is used at the corners of the castle wall where traces of repair can be observed. This is understood to be related to construction during the Jeongyujaeran period. Furthermore, it uses Hasami-stone pebbles or natural stones in-between the square stones in constructing the corner part of the castle tower in the northwestern side buildings of the main fortress. It is identical with the construction methods in the Densho(天正, 1573~1591) and Bunroku(文祿, 1592~1596) Period. The gates of Uchi-masugata(the type of walled compound, in the shape of a square measuring box inside the entrance to a defensive installation), Soto-masugata(the type of masugata built outside the castle entrance), and By pass type(平形) were built, but the type of Guichigai(喰僞形) was not identified. In general, the features show that a relatively complex form of Masugata was used on the outer part while a relatively simple form was used which allows easy access to the between fortress. As roof tiles were collected around the gates, it is understood that there were a Tamon-yagura(多聞櫓) on the top of them. In the main fortress of Gupo Waeseong, it is not confirmed that the castle had Horikiri as many other Japanese castles did, except for the Horikiri in the northeastern part of the fourth castle which was constructed in order to have a rupture with the northern ridge. It is assumed that it can become an independent geographical feature by cutting a part of the geographical line descended from Geumjeong-san mountain from the north while the Nakdong River-side can become a natural Horikiri in the south where there is a good view. Meanwhile, a Dateisigaki(竪石垣) connects the southeastern part of the main fortress with an outbuilding, and southwestern parts with the Nakdong-River side. This is because, as evident in other Japanese castles, Gupo Waeseong was assumed to be constructed in order to secure a withdrawal route of the Japanese army and a waterway near Nakdong River.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.