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Fragmentary consideration about East-Asia origin of ‘Stone Brick Pagoda’

Kim, Joon-Yeong 1

1영남대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

When people often mention Chinese stone pagodas, they show the Four-Gates Pagoda(四門塔(611)) as a typical example. This has been known as the oldest pagoda in the Chinese brick and stone pagodas which have been handed down until now as a one-storied stone pagoda. By the way, the Chinese stone pagodas created by the stacking method before the 8th century were limited to the size which did not exceed two stories even after this pagoda was built, while high-rise pagodas were all created by brick pagodas. These characteristics are compared with the Stone Pagoda of Bunhwnagsa Temple which was built almost contemporarily in the Silla Dynasty and by the multistory type (多層高塔形). Probably, it is thought that this is related to awareness about the new pagoda pattern called stone brick pagoda and it’s because it eventually came form awareness about bricks and square stone. Many Indian pagodas mentioned in 『The Record of Travels to Western Lands』(Da Tang Xi-Yu-Ji : 大唐西域記) include a lot of pagodas which accumulate square ashlar as Ayuwangta, but they were created by other materials, not stone, to meet climate and natural environment of each area. As the Indian pagodas are spread out to China, The pagodas which used square ashlar like ‘the Four-Door Pagoda’. And square ashlar and plastic stone were, at least, called ‘boulder stone(塼石)’ and ‘bricks(甎石)’ until the middle of the 7th century. And Dayan Pagoda(大雁塔) which was built in the middle of the 7th century originally tried to be created by the stone pagoda with a new Indian architecture method. It was inevitably changed and built to the brick pagoda by an order of the king who was worried about difficulties of construction work. It is thought that Chinese technical skills to create high rise stone pagodas by the method which accumulates ashlar were not secured until the middle of the 7th century. Therefore, for this reason, the tower types which used boulder stone(塼石) were limited to the size which is less than two stories. It is thought the method which accumulates square ashlar and create pagodas and the one-story Indian stupa type transferred in the foreign negotiation process of Su(隋)’s royal family in the beginning of the 7th century had an effect on creation of Chinese pagodas as they were recognized as the origin of the method to build pagodas.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.