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The Expansion and Characteristics of Sanitary Association System in 1930’s From the Perspective of ‘Urbanization’ and ‘Uniformity of the Police and Civilian’

  • Journal of Humanities, Seoul National University
  • 2022, 79(3), pp.261-295
  • DOI : 10.17326/jhsnu.79.3.202208.261
  • Publisher : Institute of Humanities, Seoul National University
  • Research Area : Humanities > Other Humanities
  • Received : July 15, 2022
  • Accepted : August 9, 2022
  • Published : August 31, 2022

Kim Jin Gyu 1

1서울대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

This article aims to grasp the policy background and police intentions contained in the aspect of the sanitary union in the 1930s. The Sanitary association was established for environmental hygiene and preventive measures, and was re-established due to the needs of the state even though it was abolished in 1917. In this process, the sanitary association functions as a police official. Throughout the mid-1930s, the number of sanitary unions increased rapidly. This was attributed to urbanization through town festivals and urban planning ordinances, and the increase in sanitary work, including the ‘Joseon Sewage Disposal Ordinance’. Meanwhile, the police authorities felt the need to take more active measures in the slogan “peopleization of the police, policeization of the people,” which they have adhered to. Accordingly, the ‘policeization of the people’ was prioritized, and the sanitary association was able to expand around the main locations of each county under such policy intentions. Sanitary associations were generally established by police arrangements, and the main station staff was also composed of police officials. The vertical operating structure of the sanitation association allowed the police to control residents through hygiene. Accordingly, the sanitary association newly paid tasks such as livestock management, medical support, and manpower mobilization beyond existing beautification and preventive measures. This is an example of an increase in the capacity of sanitary associations with urbanization. However, the sanitary association itself had many legal vulnerabilities. For example, there was no legal personality in the sanitary association, which was an obstacle to the business of the sanitary association. In other words, such problems lead to double taxation and organizational negligence. As the wartime system intensified, the sanitary association had room for cooperation in the war as a “the health camp back of a gun,” which appeared as an aid to the delivery and military. However, as the total mobilization system began in 1941, the sanitary association disappeared due to the reorganization and efficiency of the system. To define, the sanitary association was an urban hygiene organization organized to increase the influence of the police throughout the Japanese colonial period through hygiene.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.