본문 바로가기
  • Home

The International Situation in the First Half Year of the 12th Century, and the Establishment in Goryeo-Jin Relationship

  • The Review of Korean History
  • 2011, (104), pp.1-35
  • Publisher : The Historical Society Of Korea
  • Research Area : Humanities > History

Park Yun-Mi 1

1숙명여자대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The first half year of the 12th century was the period that the East Asia fell into confusion due to the foundation of Jin(金), to the ruin of Liao(遼), and to a shift of Northern Song(北宋) into Sourthern Song(南宋). Owing to this, the importance of diplomacy was emerged in the international stage. Accordingly,this study examined the process that Goryeo in those days proceeds with establishing relationship with Jin, which is a new state, as part of considering on diplomacy of Goryeo amid the relationship with international situation. In the 4th year of Injong(仁宗) (AD 1126), Goryeo entered into diplomatic relations with Jin by swearing to serve Jin as retainers. Jin asked Goryeo for diplomatic relations from the latter half in the reign of Yejong(睿宗). Goryeo didn't show interest such as not replying, but gradually changed attitude as Jin grew into a powerful country of East Asia. In other words, it was changed into the agreement to amity based on the equal position from the opposition to amity, and into the position of recognizing the relationship between subordinates and superiors. On the other hand, as soon as Goryeo and Jin established diplomatic relations, both countries suffered diplomatic problem with having written oath (誓表). At that time, the written oath requested by Jin meant that a country should make a pledge of allegiance to Jin, staking the national destiny. The problem was caused by which Goryeo ultimately failed to cope immediately with the demand of Jin even if Jin has the aspect of having led to the problem by responding sensitively to the form of international document. And, this attitude of Goryeo can be found in a situation of having been pressed diplomatically from Song. In detail, there were troubles between Goryeo and Song because Goryeo rejected to ask Song with the dispatch troops(援兵) and the right to use road in Goryeo(假道). In other words, it can be said to have originated from the difference in position between Jin, which wants to be recognized as a power country, and Goryeo, which aims to maintain smooth relationship with both Jin and Song. After submitting the written oath, Goryeo continued peaceful relationship through stable diplomacy with Jin and came to be gradually alienated from Sourthern Song. In the meantime, the 20th year of Injong (1142) was installed by Jin. Jin confirmed superiority in the relationship with Song in the wake of Soheung Treaty(紹興和議) in 1141. The king Injong in Goryeo was installed with a method of commemorating this after delivering its dignity to the interior and exterior with eulogistic title of a emperor(尊號) for Huijong(熙宗). Accordingly, even the relationship between Goryeo and Jin came to approach the stabilized period as stable as international situation. In the first half year of the 12th century, Goryeo proceeded with establishing relationship with Jin in this way with flexible diplomatic policy while properly coping with the complicated international situation. As a result,in the period of having been established the international order by having Jin as the summit, even the relationship between Jin and Goryeo entered the stabilized period, thereby having arranged the foundation of coming to be continued the friendly relationship all the time after this.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.