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Networks, Organizations, and Plural Solidarity of the March 1 Movement

Hur, Young-Ran 1

1울산대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The March 1 Movement is divided into stages from the organized preparation stage until the Declaration of Independence on March 1, 1919 to the final stage of spreading nationwide. All the efforts toward the Declaration of Independence through various routes before the Paris Peace Conference finally bore fruit on March 1, 1919 thanks to the cooperation between Protestantism and Cheondogyo and the organized unity of students. The attempt at “petition for independence” by the solidarity offered some clues that make a leap to the “March 1 Movement.” In general, the March 1 Movement has been understood in the structure to have spread from the center to local areas and from the elite to common people, propagation from Seoul, and mobilization of village communities. From the initial organized preparation stage, however, religious leaders around the nation, including Seoul, Pyeongyang, Pyeongan Province, and Hwanghae Province, made their cooperative assistance synch with each other through their network. Thus, it is valid to see the Declaration of Independence ceremony and the distribution of the Declaration of Independence on March 1, 1919 from the perspective of cooperation between Seoul and local regions rather than Seoul and other local regions. The March 1 Movement was a national movement that transcended religion, social class, position, and occupation, and it shared the value of people and proclaimed independence. Many previous studies set the people, especially farmers whose percentage in the movement was the highest, as the objects of enlightenment and mobilization. The specific time points and methods of the independence movement were diverse, but the military police and the police did become violent and fired at unarmed demonstration crowds around the nation. In the process, the autonomous and collective participation of various groups of people created a huge tidal wave called the March 1 Movement. It is thus difficult to unify the plural subjects that made the movement possible into a single image of “people mobilized through the enlightenment of their representatives.” Despite various differences, the independence movements around the nation shared a common feature called united struggle based on the dynamic cooperation of different positions, social classes, religions, villages, and regions. Pluralistic networks and organizations and multi-layered solidarity created the history in which heterogeneous and diverse practices converged into independence movements to further the “March 1 Movement”.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.