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The basic study on the Forest Policies of Goryeo Dynasty : Focused on changes in forest policy

Oh, Chi-Hoon 1

1고려대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

In the premodern society, all the living necessities such as wood and other forest products for heating, cooking, and building materials were obtained from forests. The country was interested in the use of these forest resources. In the Goryeo period, a forest policy based on the idea of Feng Shui and the Confucian nature was carried out. This was a protection aspect for the utilization of forest resources, but it was ideal rather than legal aspect. Goryeo’s forest policy continued in a similar way, following the implementation of the Monthly Ordinance(月令) by Confucian political ideology of King Sungjong(成宗) and the ban on the protection of King Hyeonjong(顯宗). Since the 12th century, the scarcity of forest resources has been increasing due to the expansion of agricultural lands, and measures have been taken to plant trees and ban forests. However, since the military regime(武臣政權), forest degradation and monopolization of forest use have increased. The reason for this is that military rulers(武臣執政) has begun to increase the amount of construction projects and the forest usage has increased rapidly before and after the war with Mongolia and the relocation of the capital. Under the Mongolian rule, a large amount of forest resources were used for the two times conquests of Japan, and the plundering of wood by Mongolia was severe. The monopoly of forests became more serious in the late Goryeo period. The monopoly was prohibited and punished, but it was not a fundamental measure. In this situation, Jeonsigwa(田柴科) which supplied siji(柴地), collapsed and the supply of forest resources through the receipt of Gongbu(貢賦; tribute and taxation) and So(所) was not smooth. In the end, Goryeo’s forest policy did not prevent the monopoly of forests, and this situation forced a new dynasty to be established and resolved.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.