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The Educational Aspect of "Hyo" in Buddhism

  • Journal of Korean Hyo Studies
  • 2017, (25), pp.87-121
  • Publisher : The Korean Hyo Studies Association
  • Research Area : Humanities > Other Humanities
  • Published : June 30, 2017

kang ki sun 1

1동국대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

This essay is written in purpose of examining the educational aspect of Buddhism regarding the "Hyo"(孝) ethics, referencing various korean-translated buddhist texts as primary materials and existing Hyo-related research papers as secondary materials. Chapter II of this essay explores the definition of Hyo and its ethics portrayed through Buddhism's viewpoint, examining the general definition of Hyo followed by how its ethics are described within various buddhist scripts. Chapter III examines its educational aspects, focusing firstly on Hyo ethics origins from benevolence, respect, and great compassion, then secondly on the deeds of Hyo as part of Pratītyasamutpāda(緣起). Thirdly, the act of returning the kindness(報恩思想) based on the equality is examined. Lastly, ways of practicing Hyo for returning one's parents kindness(父母報恩孝行) is analyzed. As the result, The core function of Hyo presented within the scripts can be summarized into 5 parts. First, the application of Hyo ethics differs between monks and regular believers. Second, both parents and children should do their best as independent person, as well as respecting each other with the spirit of benevolence - which is the first virtue of Samuryangsim(四無量心). Third, the script points that human beings are not isolated entities, but rather beings that are intimately connected throughout the cycle of Pratītyasamutpāda(緣起). Such viewpoint is unique to the buddhism, as it is hardly seen in any other reigion. Fourth, the idea of Hyo within buddhism is completely horizontal virtue, where parents and children interact as equal human beings rather than forming dominance-obedience relationship. Therefore, the most distinctive trait of Hyo explained within buddhism is that it takes equal viewpoint, relating the expression of mercy and humanism between parents and their children with circulation of Pratītyasamutpāda(緣起). However, despite the nuance implied within such characteristics, the real practice of Hyo is that to let one's parents believe in Three Treasures(三寶), help them achieve Zen, and guide them towards it. This is because, the true goal of Hyo is that to Liberate one's parents from the torment of cyclling through six worlds(六道輪廻), and lead them towards the eternal freedom if enlightment. Therefore, in order to overcome the crisis of dimming humanity that the modern era societies are facing, it is necessary to incorporate and practice the Hyo ethics of Buddhism within the fundamental domestic education.

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