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The research of Russian -Japanse dispute for Russian Kuril Islands

박종효 1

1모스크바대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The current dispute between Russia and Japan over the KurilIs lands began with the 1951 San Francisco Pease Treaty. However, the history of Russian-Japanese dispute over the Kurilis lands can betraced back to the time before the conclusion of Treaty of Commerce and Navigation in the city of Shimoda in1855. In regard to this dispute, the Treaty of Shimoda partitioned the Kuril islands, with the state border running between Urup and Iturup. It was settled that fouris lands situated north of this border, that is Southern Kurils(or Northern territories) would belong to Japan, while is lands to the north of the border, including Urup, would belong to Russia. However in 1875 the border was revised again, and in accordance to the Treaty of Saint Petersburg Russia and Japan exchanged South Sakhalin to all the KurilIs lands.This made the border more stable. Suddenly, without declaration of war, Japan began hostilities with Russia at the Korean port of Incheon on February 8, 1904. Then it attacked the Russian Second and Third Pacific Squadrons in coastal waters of Tsushima and won. There upon, the previous treaties of Shimoda and Saint Petersburg were abrogated and replaced by the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905. Japan took South Sakhalin from Russia and had its dominance in Korea officially recognized. Because of this the previous treaties of Shimoda and Saint Petersburg became in valid. So Japanese claims for that South KurilIs lands are legally Japanese territory lostany meaning. There are problems with claims that this area is <<historically>> a Japanese territory, since the local indigenous people are Ainu, not Japanese, so such statement is the act of territorial aggression toward the minority. Japan started the Pacific War which ended with its unconditional surrender to the Allied Powers.At the time of escalating Cold War between the USA and USSR 49 countries except USSR signed the San Francisco Treatyin 1951. Benefit from the Security Treaty Between USA and Japan, Japan got guarantees pertaining to its national defense and started to develop as a great economic power. Japan still lays claims to Russia and describes South Sakhalin and South Kurilas <<greedily and unlawfully occupied territories>>.However itis Japan who started Russian-Japanese war and annexed Korea and South Sakhalin. Later, using chaos in Russia arising from the revolution, Japan annexed some regions of Russian Far Eastand kept the musing Scorched Earth tactics for 5 years. Unlike the Japanese invasion, Soviet Union seizure of Kuril was done in accordance with Yalta Pactand apprehending of duality of Aliens Powers(England, USA, China and USSR). After this the USSR fulfilling the Yalta Pact regained South Sakhalin and Kuriland punished Japan for war crimes. Had the idea of socialism not spread after the Second World War, and had the Cold War never started, Japan officially would transfer South Sakhalin and Kurilin 1951 to Soviet Union in accordance with the San Francisco Treaty. So there would be no basis for a dispute with USSR. In other words, had the name of Soviet Union been officially included in the San Francisco Treaty, Japan would never have had anyway to demand Sakhalin and Kuril from USSR. The USSR collapsed in 1991 and Russia have improved its relationships with USA,so now United States does not intervene in the island's dispute as actively as it did before. So the problem of South Kuril becomes a problem of Russian-Japanese relations and entered new phase. Japan however which has remained quite aggressive even after the conclusion of the Soviet-Japanese Joint Declaration of 1956 which agreed to hang over two islands, didn't execute the terms of Declaration of 1956 and again started territorial disputes with neighbor countries claiming 4 islands from Russia. Accordingly Russia has taken firm actions in strengthening defense including ballistic missile for protection of South Kuriland insists on maintaining territorial holdings from the Second World War. The Japanese assertion of sovereignty over the islands has led to nothing except mistrustand tension.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.