본문 바로가기
  • Home

TheReexaminationoftheGoryeoMaritimeForces sincetheKingGongminin1372

이강욱 1

1목포대

Accredited

ABSTRACT

This study is focused on the entire process by which the Maritime Forces was reorganized during the late Goryeo Dynasty and is largely dividedintothreesections.Thefirstsection dealswith theorganization of theGoryeo MaritimeForcesand thevariousproblemsitfaced during the Mongol Intervention as well as the background that led to its reorganization. The main discussion in the second section details the reorganizationoftheCentralNavalForces(Haedosugun)inconnectionwith theeffortstoreform theoperationalsystem oftheDynasty’sLand Forces. Thethirdsectionfocusesontheprocessandtheresultoftheeffortstoset up theNavalTen Thousand Units(Sugunmanhobu)amidsttheinvasions ofJapanesepirates(Wokou). ThemaritimeforceoftheGoryeoDynasty,beforeitsreorganization,had belonged to the land force and been largely responsible fortransporting military personnelor supplies. Accordingly, the scope of the activities conductedbythemaritimeforcesinthisperiodwasgravelyrestrictedand,asa result,navalsupremacy waslosttoJapanesepirates.Theresultant increased lossesdueto the pillaging oftax transportation ships and tax storehouses seriously depleted the dynasty’s financialbase.The situation changedpublicopinionfrom an emphasison landdefensetostrengthening maritimecapacity,resultingin thelaunch ofa militarycampaign against the pirates,based on strong navalforces,which took placein the22nd year(1373)ofKingGongmin’srule. TheGoryeo’sCentralNavalForcesin thisperiod wasbased on a dual leadership system headed by the Haedodotongsa and Haedowonsu. The process oforganizing the new system was similar to thatforthe land force,which also had two chiefcommanders,Dotongsa and Wonsu.The reorganization placed the naval force in an equal position with the Dynasty’s Land Forces whereby itcould maintain a parallelrelationship withandactindependentlyofthelatter. The new system,however,failed to cope with enemy invasions in an effectivemannerbecausethescopeofthenavy’sactionswastoowideand theburden on sailorstoohigh.Thissituation ledGoryeo,in the9th year (1383) ofKing U’s rule,to establish the commandership ofHaedowonsu and specialnavalunits(Sugunmanhobu)and to dispatch ofwarshipsto strategicpointsin each province.Thenew navalunitswerepositionedon thedynasty’smajorsea routesforthedefenseofcoastalregionsagainst theJapaneseseamarauders.With thelaunch ofSugunmanhobu,thechief navalcommander(Haedowonsu) began to serve as a navalchiefto the fourprovinces,controlling alloftheregionalnavalforcesofGoryeo.The centralnavalforcesweredivided into two:theLeftGyeonggiNavalUnit and RightGyeonggiNavalUnitwhose duty was to defend the dynasty’s capitalarea.TheChiefsofSugunmanhobu servedasmagistrates(Gammu)in theareastheyweretodefendandthuscontributedtothesafetyofthe coasts via the efforts to increase the manpower at their disposaland ensurethesafetyofordinarypeople. Thereorganization oftheNavalForcesduring thelateGoryeo Dynasty shouldberegardedasthefirstimportantefforttocreateamodernnavyin Korean history.Thesystem establishedin thisperiodwascontinuedinthe followingJoseon Dynasty,which resultedin thegrowth ofthenavalforces in thethreecoastalprovincesin thesouth untilitaccounted for70% of theentiremilitaryforceofthedynasty’ssixsouthernprovinces.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.