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Auditory and Visual Stroop Effects for Word Meaning and Laterality

  • Journal of Special Education: Theory and Practice
  • Abbr : JSPED
  • 2013, 14(4), pp.189-209
  • Publisher : Research Institute of the Korea Special Education
  • Research Area : Social Science > Education

(Son, Hosik) 1 Jang, Hyunsook ORD ID 1

1한림대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The Stroop tests have been used widely to examine how people process conflicting information. This study aimed at developing auditory and visual Stroop tests with Korean, Sino-Korean and English words, and to examine the interaction between the meaning and laterality of words; age, ear, and language effects were also investigated. The words “left” and “right” spoken by a male speaker or printed on a computer screen were presented on the left or right ear or side of the screen. In an auditory alone, visual alone, and auditory-visual condition, the word meaning was congruent or incongruent with the presentation side. On each trial, subjects reported the word meaning or presentation side as quickly and accurately as possible, with the dependent variables being response time and accuracy. Twenty adults and 18 children participated. In the auditory Stroop test, there was no significant difference in response accuracy or time between the meaning and side information; incongruent meaning information interfered with side reports. Effects were significant for age but not for ear or language. In the visual Stroop test, subjects responded faster and more accurately when reporting side, instead of meaning, but were not affected by congruency of side and meaning; there were no differences between languages. The visual Stroop test also showed significant performance differences between age groups like the auditory Stroop test; that is, the adults responded more quickly and accurately than the children. In conclusion, the subjects performed faster and more accurately in response to the presentation side than to the meaning of the words. Moreover, visual information had more influence on the processing of audio-visual information than the reverse. The adults’ performance was much faster than the children’s, implying that children need more time to ignore irrelevant information. Though there were differences between congruent and incongruent information conditions, they were not always significant. The present Stroop tests could be used to examine executive functions of normal hearing subjects processing auditory and visual information; further work will extend to the hearing impaired.

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