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2019, Vol.72, No.72

  • 1.

    A comparative study on writing and word change in catholic verse

    Yu Kyung-Min | 2019, 72(72) | pp.1~27 | number of Cited : 0
    The first aim of this paper is to analyze, by way of comparison, amanuscript of Catholic verse, Sokyungtansikga (1931.03.) and its revisedtranscription, Sokyungjatanga (1958.10.), concerning which comparativeanalysis has not been duly attempted so far. This paper hereby elucidatessome peculiarities of the two documents in the history of Koreanlanguage, and also puts forward to the academic field of Koreanlinguistics that the linguistic study on the literature of the KoreanCatholic Church, may enlarge the scope of Korean studies. The final goalof this paper is to contribute to illuminating the periodization of thehistory of Korean language and the importance of its reconsideration, andto more exquisitely describing that history, by proving that the linguisticphenomenon as found in the literature of the Korean Catholic Churchwritten in the modern times for the common people be equal to thecharacter of modern Korean language. Phonological change, though sovehement, does not immediately change the language of all people nor isreflected in the notation of every literature. It is evident that lexicaldiffusion is found in the region of every language in all ages. But allsuch words as enable to be changed is not concurrently changed but oneby one and steadily. Sound changeappears to spread, in that manner, tothose words. For this reason, we need to observe the diverse sources ofKorean language, including the Protestant and the Roman Catholic documents that deserve the much more interest of scholars belonging tothe field of the study. Christian literature in Korea, published in theperiod of upheaval with regard to the change of Korean language, tendsto show its excessively conservative notation, which illustrates the periodof modern Korean language. The linguistic study of that literature likethis paper, thus, is conducive to the better understanding of periodizationin the history of Korean language.
  • 2.

    A study in terms of reduplication in Korean Sign Language

    Lee, Youngjae | 2019, 72(72) | pp.29~59 | number of Cited : 3
    Korean Sign Language is a language used by Deaf who are active inthe deaf community in Korea. Sign Language has a grammatical systemunique to sign language and is a grammatical system that can not beseen in other spoken languages. One of them is the reduplicationgrammar. The reduplication is used throughout whole grammar in case ofsign language. There are a noun-verb pair, reduplication of nouns and verbs andsome other reduplication in reduplication of Korean Sign Language. Anoun-verb pair is a pair that is distinguished by whether it is a singlereduplication or a double reduplication without changing the conditionsthat make up the sign language. The reduplication of nouns refers toreduplication which becomes a plural form of the noun by repeating anoun becoming sign language twice or more times. The reduplication ofa verb is a reduplication that is repeated several times as the verb ismoved sideways. The other reduplication refer to repetitions which havedifferent meanings altered in sign language’s original meaning.
  • 3.

    “Song Kyoeng-un's biography” of Yi Ki-bal and the Representation of 17th Century Jeonju ―Sino-Korean Literature Class with Historical Geography

    Kim Hara | 2019, 72(72) | pp.61~95 | number of Cited : 5
    “Song Kyoeng-un's biography” is a Sino-Korean prose of Yi Ki-bal’s. Song Kyoeng-un, the protagonist of this work is a famous lute player ofthe 17th century Joseon. He is a well-known figure in Korean music andliterature history. Yi Ki-bal is a literary man of gentry class who was born and raisedin Jeonju. He started his central bureaucracy career in Seoul since 1625,in his mid-20s. He left Seoul after 1636, the Qing invasion of Joseon, andspent his life in his hometown. Song Kyoeng-un was born as a slave of Yi Dam who was a memberof the royal clan lived in mid-1580 of Seoul. Song was a lute player inSeoul in his mid-50s and enjoyed great fame and escaped from slavery. But he moved to Jeonju after the Later Jin invasion of Joseon in 1627and spent the rest of his life at the age of 73. In this paper, Yi Ki-bal'sbrother was identified as the son-in-law of Yi dam and used as the linkbetween the writer and the protagonist. Yi Ki-bal was acquainted with the lute player's reputation while inSeoul, and after returning to Jeonju, he was able to meet and interactwith Song and observe the beautiful and full old age of this artist. Thenames of Jeonju's mountains and rivers mentioned in this prose canprove Song's residence and give his narrative a concrete background.
  • 4.

    A Study on Thinking Background of Novel Guwunmong

    Park, Seongjae | 2019, 72(72) | pp.97~129 | number of Cited : 0
    Recently, in the discussion of theoretical motive or background of thenovel Guwunmong, the perspective contained in Juyeok(Book of Changes,周易), a traditional thinking method in East Asia, has been popular. Thispaper tried to describe the aspect of hermit idea of Taoism and theperspective of the Book of Changes in the novel more concretely. Thispaper views that 'Dongji (winter solstice, 冬至)', poem written in Chinesecharacters, which was the last poem written by Kim Man-jung, theauthor of the Guwunmong, when he was in desperate situation in a placeof exile in Namhae in Korea, indicates that Guwunmong is directlyrelated with palgwe (eight signs of divination, 八卦) and hermit idea ofTaoism. In his Chinese poem, 'To Hear from Namhae the News that My TwoNephews Were Exiled to A Remote Island,' Seopo Kim Manjungsarcastically described his and his nephews' dismal situations as 'Allbecome Taoistic 'hermits''. And, in his poem 'Dongji', he mentionedpalgwe and hermit idea of Taosim. This paper analyzed how these wererelated with the background on which Guwunmong was written. First, the situation in the novel where Shim So-yeon and Yang So-yumet is 'thunder fire wind (雷火風)' where “one could hear thunder andlightning illustrates below.” In his poem, 'Dongji', Seopo mentioned “seawind shouts all night long like thunder.” And, said, “a guest readsJuyeok under the candle light.” In Juyeok, punggwe becomestaeeuipalgwedo 'when a big guy is full of masculine energy'. Therefore,as the thunder operated by the majesty of Yang So-yu means daesang(大象) in the gwesang, Juyeok contains the phrase, "the sound ofrain-thunder is pung. With such an atmosphere, in his place of exileSeoncheon, he met a old monk, and discussed with him Buddhism andimagination contained in Juyeok such as palgwe. We we assume that, tosolve the questions raised in the discussion, he mainly read Juyeok andJujaeoryu in the place of exile in Namhae, the novel and Chinese poem'Dongji' probably have been created in the spirit of hermit idea ofTaoism and imagination of Juyeok, when he was in exile in Namhae. Up to now, Buddhism and conflict between Confucianism andBuddhism have been offered as the background of Guwunmong. But, it istime to raise the discussion of Laozi (老子) which can be said to beTaoistic philosophy related with views of Juyeok and traditional yin-yangthought as the background of Guwunmong. It is necessary to expand theresearch scope to Laozi (老子) which can be said to be Taoisticphilosophy, a traditional thinking method in East Asia, and traditionalyin-yang thought.
  • 5.

    Aspect of Existence and Meanings of <Gakseori Taryeong> Shown in Pansori and Folk Songs

    Choi Hye Jin | 2019, 72(72) | pp.131~167 | number of Cited : 1
    This thesis aims to seek for the changes and meanings by revealing theorigin and source of Gakseori(Beggar) and <Gakseori Taryeong(Beggar’sSong)>, and also examining the editorials transmitted from Pansori andfolk songs. First, through the existing researches related to <GakseoriTaryeong>, this study understood the derivation, origin, and contents ofGakseori. And this study also inferred the process in which a group ofbeggars was changed into ‘Gakseori’ through <Gwangmunja-jeon> byPark, Ji-Won and <Hangyeongsa> by Kang, I-Cheon. Despite thelow-level of entertainment, the streets of Seoul in the 18th centuryshowed the looks of people who were begging. Especially, this study paidattention to the fact that Gwangmun was able to handle or make use ofdiverse theatrical items as a beggar. This attitude of Gwangmun showedthe aspect of combination between begging and play in the group ofGakseoris. The oldest editorials of <Gakseori Taryeong> might be the onesshown in <Heungbo-ga> and <Byeongangsoi-ga> by Sin, Jae-Hyo. The<Gakseori Taryeong> of the 19th century by Sin, Jae-Hyo was entrainedin the order of appearance of a group of Gakseoris, introduction, JangTaryeong(Jeon Taryeong), dance by the group of Gakseoris, and JalhandaTaryeong. In the modern Pansori, the <Heungbo-ga> was the only one showing the <Gakseori Taryeong>, and this study representativelyexamined the editorials of Park, Bong-Sul’s version, Park, Dong-Jin’sversion, and Kim, Yeon-Soo’s version. Park, Dong-Jin and Kim,Yeon-Soo borrowed the editorial by Sin, Jae-Hyo while Park, Bong-Sulshowed the transitional aspect by showing the changed <GakseoriTaryeong>. The version by Park, Bong-Sul showed the origin of thecurrent introduction and Gakseori, and the part of small talks, which wastypically continued in modern times. As the folk song <Gakseori Taryeong> in the late 20th centuryaccepted songs like Jang Taryeong and Jalhanda Taryeong of thepreceding time, the typicality of the introduction was formed. As theorigin of Gakseori and all sorts of Taryeong were inserted, theentertaining situation was heightened. Especially, the core included JangTaryeong, Sutja Taryeong, Jalhanda Taryeong, and the origin ofbecoming Gakseori, and based on these common denominators, diversevariations were performed. Through the editorial of <Gakseori Taryeong>, the aesthetics ofcreating a place for play filled with fun, joys, and sorrows was formed. The Gakseori Taryeong created a place for play by using jokes and wordplay as a strategy to arouse fun through the introduction and all sorts ofinserted songs. On the other hand, they also appealed to people’ssympathy and pity by including their pitiful background of birth anddifficulties in begging.
  • 6.

    Chae, Man-Sik's Body and disease

    Sangin Gwak | 2019, 72(72) | pp.169~193 | number of Cited : 0
    Chae, Man-Sik was known as a writer who suffered from numerousdiseases in his life and eventually died of pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, this writing tried to combine medical knowledge with his"illness" in his essay. The reason why this writing paid attention to hisessay to understand his disease is that his essay is an effective genrethat reveals his story as a direct statement. Chae, Man-Sik had suffered neurasthenia when he was middle school,and the disease became a chronic disease. As he grew up, he hadsuffered from insomnia,depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, dyspepsia,tinnitus, intercostal neuralgia and pulmonary tuberculosis with his poorlife. Thus, this essay planned from the expectiation that it could help tounderstatnd his body and disesase in detail, unlike the literary ormetaphorical approach to Chae, Man-Sik’s life and disease, by combininghis illness with medical knowldege. Ironically, 'Chae, Man-Sik' and 'disease' are important because hesecured his identity through his weakening body. In other words, hecould communicate between his inner world and the outer through hispainful body and gain insight into life and death. Since there has been nomedical research on his body and disease, this writing can be consideredas a fusion of literature and medicine. The record of Chae, Man-Sik'sdisease was a symbolic or written directly print of the language ofsuffering and despair in reality.
  • 7.

    A Study on Ways of Care Perception Expressed in Park Wan Seo Novels

    kim mi young | 2019, 72(72) | pp.195~229 | number of Cited : 7
    The Study focuses on women’s caring labor described in Park WanSeo’s novel 『Beginning of Alive Days』, 「She knows, I know, and Heavenknows」 and 「The Trance of Falling Sun」, 「Kindhearted Bokhee」. Untilnow, women’s caring labor has been recognized natural. However, whenit comes to women being subjected to receive caring, they tend to berejected. Main characters of aforementioned novels are dedicated to caringwhen they are “provider”, in the name of love, and when they become“receiver” of such care, they are rejected due to family power structure. This serves as an momentum for the female characters to become awareof their identity, questioning their caring relationship. The changes in the perception experienced by women in carrying outtheir care labor can be examined from Carol Gilligan's perspective onethics of care. Gilligan says moral judgments centering around care, relationship, and responsibility to make a determination of actions. Inaddition, she goes further even to the change in the perception of thatwomen are not such the being having obligations only to provide care,but they themselves are also supposed be the object of care. Thissuggests that the ethics of self care could be an alternative whenwomen try to overcome the violence of the patriarchal system they aresuffering while carrying out their care labor and seek for the possibility of gender dissolution. This study intended to look into the ways of care perception expressedin Park Wan Seo novels by classifying them into periods. In her novelsin the 1970s, female characters are expressed as the ones who becomeconscious of the duplicity inherent in the patriarchal system whilefeeling suppression, anger under their distorted and interdependent caringsituations. And in the 1980s, female characters show a change in theirperception of that they enter into a symbiotic relationship with their caredependents based on a trust and recognize themselves as a personentitled to be cared in such interdependent relationships. At this moment,the candidness inherent in the personal integrity emphasized by Gilliganworks as a counterstrategy to restore the identity damaged in the processof care labor. Lastly, this study sorted her novels out of the ones in the2000s as the works showing similar in terms of structure to the contentscovered in the ones in the 1970s and noted the changes in the perceptionwith the passage of the time. Female characters attempt to recover theiridentity by choosing self-reliance through some changes in theirperception to embrace their life positively. Thus, this study was able to find out that those female charactersexpressed in Park Wan Seo novels acquire the possibility of self care bymeans of a gender dissolution attempted under their caring situations. Park Wan Seo novels suggest that women can realize the ethics of selfcare while acknowledging their own existence in their caring process andcarrying out interdependent care ethics.
  • 8.

    A Study of Pathological Aesthetics in Park Bong-Woo’s Poetry in Jeonju Period

    Moon, Shin | 2019, 72(72) | pp.231~255 | number of Cited : 0
    This article examines the pathological aspects of excessive historicalconsciousness and lack of ethical consciousness in the poetry of ParkBong-woo's Jeonju period. Poems that reveal hyper aesthetics are worksrelated to historical epistemology, and poems that show hypo are relatedto his ontological problem suffering from mental illness. Park Bong-woo has been raising the issue of division since the earlytimes, embodying the image of socio-historical ethics into the image ofblood at the border symbolized by the DMZ(휴전선). However, ParkBong-woo's self-consciousness was insufficient to handle hyper ethics. Although socio-historical ethics should be derived from life, Park's lifelacked the ethics of the living people to support his hyper of ethics. Indeed, Park Bong-woo, who lived in Jeonju, lived in an autistic state. In this way, Park Bong-woo's poetry shows his pathological symptomsin a way that hyper or hypo short of normality. In this process, ParkBong-woo shows a romantic admiration for the “other world” rather thanthe real world. In this sense, Park's pathological aesthetics are related tohis romantic attitude.
  • 9.

    A Study on Gong, Seonok’s “Merry Night Road”(Myongranghan Bamgil)

    Moon Young-Jin | 2019, 72(72) | pp.257~286 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper is researching on Gong, Seonok’s “Merry Night Road”. Some conclusions are as follows:Firstly, it is important to understanding the problems of focalizing inthe narrative. Secondly, desire for leaving home is giving up, because of realizing ofcomplexity of the world of her own. Thirdly, changing of focalizing is the proof of the power of migrantworker’s potent internal power. And it can be related ‘the paradox ofparia.’ This is important paradox of this narrative. Fourthly, walking is very powerful symbolism of this narrative. Lastly, “Merry Night Road” is a fiction which has a thresholdexperience and a road chronotope.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Subjectivity of Subjects Shown in Park, Yong-Rae’s Poetry - Focusing on the Frame of Homecoming -

    PARK JI HAK | 2019, 72(72) | pp.287~314 | number of Cited : 0
    This thesis analyzed the meanings of the frame of homecoming shownin Park, Yong-Rae’s poetry by understanding it as the subjectivityimported by the subjects. In order to understand the concept of thissubjectivity, this thesis, first, defined the meanings of the frame dividingthe schema. The recent discussions of frame mainly focus on thecontents of analyzing the methods of news report. However, eachdifferent theory is similarly used with no division of terms, so that thediscrimination of frame is decreased. Like this, the frame is used in thesimilar context because the frame implies diverse meanings. Once theframe is understood as framework, it could be understood as a similarmeaning with schema. However, to clearly secure the objectivity ofdiscussions, this thesis approached the frame in the aspect of meaninglike ‘express(into specific methods), make(a form)’To divide this term, this thesis separated the subjects into the positionof user and audience. In the position of user, the frame is something toaim for. The person who uses the frame only follows this to organizeand vitalize thoughts. Here, if the directing point is the frame, such manymethods organized and vitalized by following the directing point is theframing. On the other hand, a reader becomes a subject who builds upthe semantic network within the frame composed by a poet. Here, each reader forms individual schema. However, the style of this schema isperformed within the frame suggested by a poet.
  • 11.

    A Cognitive Study on the Application of Greimas’ Semiotic Square Model of Mirror by Lee, Sang

    So Pil Gyun | 2019, 72(72) | pp.315~340 | number of Cited : 3
    None of the previous studies on 「Mirror」 by Lee, Sang used acognitive perspective. The researcher considered that it is now time toconduct research from a cognitive point of view to meet the status ofrepresentative poem of a poet who represent self-awareness. Therefore,this study intends to consider the cognitive system by analyzing basedon cognitive poetics and applying Greimas' semiotic square model. Thiswill be a new method of analyzing unique cognitive structure of textsthat show surrealistic characteristics through the process of analyzingcognitive structure of text and moving toward cognitive orientation. The 'mirror' represented in text is a psychological reflection andrealistic self is reflecting the self in the mirror. 'Mirror' is the groundand 'myself' represented in the mirror is constructing a cognitive systemfor self-awareness by functioning as a surrealistic figure. The text isshowing cognitive structure of binary oppositions of realistic self and theself in the mirror. It is showing hybrid cognitive orientation that tends toreach understanding and unity of true self based on cognitive structure. Narrator in the text recognizes 'self' in the mirror with binary oppositiveview, but is showing cognitive orientation that recognizes a relationshipwith 'myself' in the mirror and pursues interest and unity. Inside and outside the 'mirror' that this study consider as psychological reflection can be considered the same as the structure ofinside and outside of Möbius strip connected as one. It is the attention ofinside and outside of mirror being the same but appear differently. It isthe attention that direction of shapes reflected on 'mirror,' a reflectiveobject, are different but the essence is the same. It implies aphilosophical meaning that the essence of inside human existence is thesame unlike what is shown on the outside.
  • 12.

    A Study on Intellectuals of the Liberation Period and ‘Seoul Streets’ in the Poetry of Lee Yong-ak from a Literary Geographic Perspective

    Song-Ji seon | 2019, 72(72) | pp.341~368 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study approaches the relationship between intellectuals of theliberation period and ‘Seoul streets’ in the poetry of Lee Yong-ak from aliterary geographic perspective and attempts to reveal the aspects inwhich intellectualistic identity is respectively expressed in hometowns and‘Seoul streets’. Lee Yong-ak reproduces places of the people in a processin which he searches for directionality for his own literature. Here, placesbecome detailed locations in which the social practices of intellectualsoccur. While the pieces of most poets of the liberation period wereideological and inflammatory, the pieces of Lee Yong-ak differ fromtheirs because he found sites directly connected to the survival of thepeople and made their vivid voices into literary works. With this, literary geographic approaches provide valid perspectives infiguring out the nature of the literature of Lee Yong-ak during theliberation period. Literary geography views humans as geographic beingsand explains and understands the identity of man through relationshipsbetween characters and spaces within pieces. Existential understanding ofone human does not begin with a great story based on the universalityof time but rather from small stories based on the distinct characteristicsof places and literary geographic approaches towards literary pieces canbecome effective methods for understanding the individual lives of humans according to different places. Unlike at the end of Japanese imperialism, when he remained in hishometown at the frontier of history, the Lee Yong-ak of the liberationperiod tried to stand at the center of history, symbolized by the ‘streetsof Seoul.’ In studies that discuss the relationship between liberation periodintellectuals and ‘Seoul streets’, hometown place experiences at the end ofJapanese imperialism were provided to understand how Lee Yong-akarrived on ‘Seoul streets’ directly after liberation and to understand senseof identity changes in intellectuals according to placeness differencesbetween the hometown and ‘Seoul streets’. Therefore, this study examinedhow Lee Yong-ak was conflicted with social responsibility as anintellectual in his hometown at the end of Japanese imperialism and howhis poetry, life, and actions were integrated with ‘Seoul streets’ as anintellectual of the liberation period to express how places are a centralelement that compose the social lives of man.
  • 13.

    Modernity of place on Jeong Jiyong’s early poetry

    Shim Jae-hui | 2019, 72(72) | pp.369~394 | number of Cited : 1
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the place on Jeong Jiyong'searly poetry. The place in the poem reflects specific experiences of apoetic speaker. Therefore, a individual who has a sensory responseappears in the place. In this sense, a place in the poem is a standard foridentifying modernity. At first, Kim Sowol's poems are compared with Jeong Jiyong's poems. It is a kind of a way to understand the modernity of Jiyong’s poetry. Jiyong took advantage of very delicate sensory on writing poem. So, theappearance of a individual with a sense is inevitable. An empirical placeappears by the eyes of an independent individual. Jiyong took Sowol'spoetry to a new level. Jiyong learned western literary theories from his study abroad. Heactively experimented with creation and succeeded. He expressed hisexperience of modern times in a sense of place. A sense of wonder andsatisfaction are the emotions that make up the initial period, but the mostrepresentative is the melancholy. As a colonial intellectual, an internationalstudent who has experienced modern civilization, the place on Jiyong’poem often featured melancholy. However, it did not develop into a deepproblem-conscious mind. Although this was one of the inevitable choicesof Joseon writers of the time, it became a limit to Jeong Jiyong's poetry.
  • 14.

    Postcolonial, War, Oedipus Republic of Korea - Based on Choi In-ho’s early short stories -

    Huh, Kwan moo , JaeSeok Ko | 2019, 72(72) | pp.395~419 | number of Cited : 3
    The study is aimed at focusing on Choi In-ho’s early short storiesabout how the concepts of anti-Communism, pro-American capitalism andChristianity worked as the mechanical principles of Western Oedipusstructures to create distorted self-portraits in our society. Pro-U.S.,anti-Communist codes and Christian ceremonies made the nostalgia forthe imaginary father and the idea of obeying such a father even strongerin our consciousness(or Unconscious). And it has made a woman's roleinsignificant or pushed her into the private realm of motherhood and soon. It also led to a tendency to focus more on the close relationshipbetween father and son. In the end, it is described as a desire for a goodfather, but comes back as a father with absolute power. Choi In-ho’searly short stories hide our ongoing history of completing our father’smyths and pro-American, pro-Japanese and Christian-oriented Oedipusnation based on familyism. Therefore we must grasp his novel from thecontinuity of the period from liberation to the present. And within it, wemust seek to escape the Oedipus structure, which features absoluteity andantagonism.
  • 15.

    A perceptual and acoustic study on Vietnamese learners’ production of Korean affricates

    See-Gyoon Park , JiYoung Kim | 2019, 72(72) | pp.421~448 | number of Cited : 3
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the error patterns andacoustical characteristics of Vietnamese learners’ production of Koreanaffricates. For this purpose, the Vietnamese learners were divided intothree groups (beginners, intermediate, and advanced) according to theirL2 (Korean) experiences, and the patterns of their pronunciations ofKorean affricate sounds in word-initial and word-medial positions wereexamined through listening judgment by Korean listners and acousticanalysis was also conducted for the identical tokens. The result of the listening judgment showed that Vietnamese learnerswere most accurate with the production of lenis sound ‘ㅈ’ in word-initialand word-medial positions. In terms of the improvement of pronunciationin relation to the learning experience, it was found that word-initial lenis‘ㅈ’, and word-medial lenis ‘ㅈ’ and aspirated ‘ㅊ’ were improved, and thatword-medial fortis ‘ㅉ’ was in the middle of improvement. Overall, itseemed that more clues of improvement were provided in theword-medial than in the word-initial position. In terms of the overall error pattern, the accurate tokens ofVietnamese subjects judged by Korean listeners reached almost the samelevel as the tokens produced by Koreans in all lenis, fortis, and aspiratedsounds. In the case of the inaccurate tokens of Vietnamese subjectsjudged by Korean listeners, the fortis ‘ㅉ’ and the aspirated ‘ㅊ’ in word-initial position differed in the length of the CF-VOT and the fortis‘ㅉ’ and the aspirated ‘ㅊ’ in word-medial position differed in the lengthsof the precedent vowel, the CF-VOT, and the closure duration.
  • 16.

    The Principle and Practice in Deciphering “Dosolga”: for the Purpose of Utilization in Education

    Park, Jae-Min | 2019, 72(72) | pp.449~487 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper is the result of trying to improve the understanding of“Dosolga” and its utilization in educational field by deciphering “Dosolga”by a consistent principle. The main focus of this paper on the decryptionwork is summarized in three. First, the principle of the hyangchal transcription was applied strictly. In some of the studies that have led to the decipherment of hyangchal,we have seen quite a few confusions of concepts. This article clarifiesthe concepts and classifies letters in the hyangchal transcription into twobroad categories: jeongyongja with real meaning and chayongja only usedas phonetic symbols. Jeongyongja is subdivided into eumdok and hundok,and chayongja is divided into eumcha and huncha. I clearly marked thesecategories in every letters that appeared in “Dosolga” so that theconcepts of the categories could be used in research and educationwithout confusion. Second, the archaic vocabulary used in hyangga was accuratelypresented. In the meantime, the decipherment of hyangchal has graduallychanged to present only conclusive forms rather than abundantpresentation of vocabulary. This is a simple method because only aconclusion was presented, but by eliminating the process, there was aproblem in the credibility of the final conclusion. In other words, there was an overflow of unidentified archaic words. In this regard, this paperattempts to suggest the most standard word forms based on 15th-centuryliterature written in hangeul characters, so that the results can be easilyused in research and education. Third, the meaning of the vocabulary used in hyangga was examinedin various angles, resulting in more probable decryption. In the meantime,we have overestimated some of the characteristics of the letters used inhyangga and draw some conclusions from them. One such example is thedeciphering of “陪立羅良” in the last phrase of “Dosolga” with “moshyeonariphara”. This paper judges that such letters as “羅” should be viewedas chaja for several reasons. The process and conclusions are reviewedfrom various angles to enable in-depth discussion in research andeducation.
  • 17.

    A Study on Writing Evaluation Efficacy and Writing Evaluation Performance of Preliminary Korean Teachers

    Park, Chan-heung | 2019, 72(72) | pp.489~516 | number of Cited : 2
    In this study, the efficacy of writing evaluation was noted to findempirical connotations for the professional development of writingevaluation of prospective Korean language teachers. Specifically, thepurpose of the study was to collect variables such as the effectiveness ofwriting evaluation by prospective Korean language teachers, thedifficulties they experienced in the writing evaluation process andopinions on their experiences in conducting writing evaluations, andconsistency and rigor in the results of writing evaluations. The groupcomparison looked at the efficacy and rigour of the writing evaluation,the difficulty of feeling subjective by the assessment category, and thesuitability of performing the actual grading, and found no relevance in thewriting evaluation efficacy and the rigour shown in the writingevaluation. In addition, the degree of suitability identified for eachassessment category and the degree of ambiguity felt by prospectiveKorean language teachers were also not closely related. In order tointerpret these findings more closely, the difficulties experienced byprospective Korean language teachers in conducting write evaluationswere brought to a free technical response, and the factors related to thesubject of the study were looked at during these responses. Exploring the free technical responses, it was found that the current writing evaluationexperience provided by the College of Education did not suffice to form awriting evaluation efficacy or writing evaluation expertise.
  • 18.

    A study on the hierarchy of narrative teaching between 6th grade of elementary school and 1st grade of middle school4

    Seon Ju Won | 2019, 72(72) | pp.517~553 | number of Cited : 0
    In this article, we prepared a hierarchical category of sixth gradeelementary school and first grade middle school narrative teaching byfocusing on enhancing the quality of students' experience in narrative andenhancing their ability to write for real life. The main considerations forthis are the development of students from a lifetime perspective, theenhancement of the quality of the narrative experience and thestandardization of literature, the three dimensionality of the hierarchicalcategories of educational content, and the rearrangement and adjustmentof the achievement criteria according to the three dimensionality. Andultimately, it aims to improve the quality of the narrative experiencethrough the activities of the narrative and improve the existential life ofstudents through the life of literature. Based on this view, the content elements of the narrative teachingbetween the sixth grade of elementary school and first grade of middleschool are presented as follows.; Textbook learning activities, narrativecomponents, characteristics of narrative works, elements of narrativeteaching (learning experience), teachers or fellow students, essay writing skills and various backgrounds, overall understanding of life, literaryculture enhancement, existential well-being, etc. According to this category, the 6th and 1st graders of elementaryschool and middle school were grouped into [6th and 7th graders] toprepare the following performance criteria related to the contents of thenarrative teaching. [7 Korean05-01] To engage in literary activities, knowing that literatureis a variety of communication activities based onaesthetic experiences. [7 Korean05-02] Accepts and produces actions based on the effects ofliterary expression and components. [7 Korean05-03] Understand the various backgrounds of the creation ofworks, make various interpretations of works, andappreciate works. [7 Korean05-04] I understand that the acceptance of the work is relatedto designing and pursuing a better life at the level oflife. [7 Korean05-05] When one embodies one's valuable experience withindividual ideas and expressions, it reflects on one'slife. [7 Korean05-06] Understand that literary ability, various backgroundsand understanding of life can promote narrativeactivities and develop narrative skills. [7 Korean05-07] Understand that the narrative experience closely relatedto the narrative activity is associated with the influenceof a teacher or fellow student, and the sense ofself-efficacy in the narrative activity. Among these achievement criteria, [7 korean05-01], [7 korean05-02], and [7 korean05-03] are some of the same or minor modifications to theexisting performance standards corresponding to sixth grade and firstgrade in middle school. These focus on the elements that make up theability to write, the understanding and interpretation of the work, and theappreciation and criticism of the And the achievement criterion [7korean05-05] focuses on 'production through imitation and creation' thatconstitutes the capacity of an narrative. Meanwhile, [7 korean05-4], [7 korean05-06] and [7 korean05-07] focuson 'expansion of experience through sharing and communication' and arenewly established standards for achievement in consideration of overallunderstanding of life, enhancement of literary culture, and existentialwell-being. The achievement criteria were newly established because thecontents of the narrative teaching should be considered in the hierarchicalprocess of the teaching contents, such as the existing well-being, thetotal understanding of life, the promotion of literary culture, and theenhancement of the quality of the narrative experience.
  • 19.

    A Study on the Contents of Integrated Korean Language Education with a medium for the interpersonal function of language

    Jeon han sung , Min, Ji Hoon | 2019, 72(72) | pp.555~596 | number of Cited : 0
    The purpose of this study is to organize the content of Koreanlanguage education, which integrates the existing content areas of theKorean language and the contents of the media language education bymeans of the ‘intepersonal function of the language’. First, themacrofunction system of language was utilized to integrate existingcontent areas with the contents of media language education. ‘Linguisticrealization of wish’ corresponding to interpersonal functions inmacrofunction system of language is set as the medium of integration. The educational significance and contents were derived by setting‘present realization of wish’ and ‘imaging reproduction of wish’ which areaspects of realizing this in detail as target of education. Second, In termsof media language education, ‘interpersonal functions’ of language wereutilized to implement ‘acceptance and production of aesthetic text’ as thecontent of education. The interpersonal function of language is closelyrelated to the concept of aestheticism, which means human sentimenttoward aesthetic objects in that it values human attitudes. Therefore,based on this discussion, the theme of ‘Wishes of SeoDong’ was definedas ‘Aesthetic text’ by SeoDongyo as Hyangga, folktales associated with itand SeoDongyo as drama. In addition, The knowledge and activitiesrequired to actively accept and produce these were derived as the contentof education.
  • 20.

    The Aspect and Task of Sijo education

    Jeong Hangi , Yongjae Kim | 2019, 72(72) | pp.597~632 | number of Cited : 5
    The purpose of this paper is to research the aspect and task of Sijoeducation. The result is as follow. The Aspect of Sijo education : Form the first curriculum to the fourthcurriculum, the learner search for the ethnic emotion, search for thepoet’s heart in the Sijo, talk the feeling of reading the Sijo. Sijoeducation is that the learner appreciate Sijo work. Form the fifthcurriculum to the sixth curriculum, the learner is instructed the contentsand form of Sijo. Sijo education is that the learner gain the knowledge ofSijo. Form the seventh curriculum to 2015 curriculum, Sijo education isregarded reference data, the learner does various receptive activity. Sijoeducation is that the learner regard Sijo as children's poem. The Task of Sijo education : Sijo education of independent field isnecessity. Sijo has traditional culture named nature and lesson. So thelearner is able to achieve the ability of self-examination, consideringothers, modulating the ill feeling. Sijo is the poetry with a fixed form. Sothe learner easily have practice to write poetry, easily master the rhythm,develop one's abilities of discovering and self-examination. The learnermust be learned the 4 metre, conclusion in the last line, half line. Thelearner must be learned the structure of ‘object-meaning’ and‘conflict-solving.’
  • 21.

    A Study on the Textbook Review and Suggestions for the Linkage of Classical Narrative Education between Elementary and Secondary Schools

    Cho Seong yoon | 2019, 72(72) | pp.633~663 | number of Cited : 3
    The study aims to critically examine whether elementary-secondaryKorean language textbooks have a linked classical narrative education,and suggest them to move in a better direction. Classical narrativeeducation in elementary and secondary Korean language textbooksshowed three problems in terms of connectivity. First, in elementaryschool, classics are the basic material of everyday Korean language, whilein secondary school, classics are a radically intensified Korean languagecultural activity and are converted into textualized learning materials. Therefore, there is a wide gap between the education of elementary andsecondary schools on the classical narrative. Second, as we move fromelementary to secondary school, the difficulty and length of text betweenschools, the number of branches and text change radically. Third, thereare some areas where there are no changes in the school level, such aspresenting the same work in parallel without any further stages, or thereare similar types and composition of learning activities, although theachievement criteria and learning objectives differ. To solve theseproblems, First, it is necessary to sustainably maintain the view thatclassical education should be education for daily korean language lifetogether with literature and cultural education, Second, it should be made to provide a balanced education in various aspects of classical narrativetypes, Third, it is necessary to plan the education of classical narrative,which is linked between elementary and secondary schools, in pursuit ofeducation that continues and develops gradually.
  • 22.

    A Case Study on the Development of the College Writing Textbook in Advanced Level ― Based on the “Creative Writing” textbook in Kunsan National University ―

    JOO JIYOUNG , Choi Hyun-Jai , Park Seon Yang | 2019, 72(72) | pp.665~688 | number of Cited : 4
    The textbook in Kunsan University's “Creative Writing” set thepurpose of opening the subject, which is an advanced stage of writing,and the learning outcomes of communication and thought-building as thebasis for development. The text was constructed to access sequentially,taking into account the spread of knowledge, connectivity, and the levelof learners. Activities were designed to raise questions based onbackground knowledge obtained from various data and to foster problemsolving skills. In the process, the students were allowed to develop digitalcommunication skills and exercise their autonomy. The originality of Kunsan University's “Creative Writing” textbooktakes into account the richness of reading materials and a studyquestions that crosses the academic spectrum, and the consideration oflocality. In order for the significance of the textbook to be achievedthrough the learning outcomes of the subject, it is essential that theprofessor have deep and wide background knowledge, and mustunderstand the Digital Age. Also, learners' self-participation is essential.
  • 23.

    Improving KFL Speaking Skills through Classroom Debate Activities

    Choi, Yujeong , KIM DAE HEE | 2019, 72(72) | pp.689~711 | number of Cited : 4
    This study proposes the use of classroom debate activities as a wayto enhance the speaking skills of Korean language learners. Authenticexamples of debate activities conducted in an advanced Korean languagecourse in a Canadian university are described. Based on Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP), this studydiscusses the debate activities in four basic directions: use of instructorfeedback, language knowledge acquisition, development of higher thinkingability, and debate attitude enhancement. The learners’ post-activity evaluation of the debate activities indicatedinstructor feedback as an extremely effective and valuable means ofimproving the speaking skill learning.
  • 24.

    Diachronic Considerations about Textbook Reception, Involvement Contexts of Classical Poetry Materials - Focusing on the 5th Curriculum

    Choi, Hongwon | 2019, 72(72) | pp.713~749 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study was designed to examine empirically the status of classicalpoetry materials in textbooks and to identify the various factors andmechanisms involved in textbooks. In particular, the 5th curriculum andtextbooks were notable because materials selected or excluded at thistime continue to be included in subsequent textbook results, which is amajor turning point for textbooks. Accordingly, this study aimed toexplore the factors and mechanisms involved in the selection, inclusion,exclusion and departure of materials, and to analyze in-depth aspects andresults of the materials in 5th curriculum and textbook. First, the influence and mechanism of Korean language education andliterature discourse were examined in terms of exploring external contextsand backgrounds containing materials. The emphasis was placed oncommunication abilities and goal-oriented paradigms in the 5thcurriculum, which examined the process and results of these materialsbeing removed and excluded from the textbook. Second, in the phase of the internal textbook system, the factors andaspects involved in the inclusion in the textbook were explored. As thedesign was centered on modern literature, it was found that classicalpoetry materials were placed in a subordinate manner. Also, the Sijo[時調] and genres of classical poetry were dually hierarchically arranged to middle school and high school, respectively. Third, based on the search for the context and background involved intextbook, this study empirically analyzed the aspects and actual conditionsof materials in textbooks by major genres of classical poetry. Somematerials were newly entered into canons and replacements of existingcanons were made. As the monopolistic status continued andstrengthened, other materials were excluded from the textbook. Inaddition, as the number of materials included in textbooks droppedsharply, the process and aspect of some materials becoming a canonwere also examined. Through this aspect, it was able to derive the resultof making canons by major genres.