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Cultural Difference and International Tourism Demand: Focusing on Hofstede’s Culture Dimensions Theory

박용민 1

1강원대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

Foregoing studies mainly focused on finding out highly influential data centered on economic variables such as income, exchange rates, and prices and were presented in studies already made. In this context, the current study attempted to confirm that cultural nature is significant among the various factors affecting the demand for tourism. For this, the current study conducted multiple regression analysis with economic variables confirmed in Hofstede’s cultural dimension as an independent variable. Then, international demand for tourism as a sub-variable was used to confirm if there were common cultural attributes affecting the demand. Next, to confirm what effect relative difference in culture has on the demand, it altered Hofstede’s values of cultural indices into values of cultural difference among nations using ‘Kogut and Singh Index’ to look into their relation to the international demand for tourism. The result of the analysis were as follows: First, it showed, a common attribute of culture affecting the demand for international tourism is ‘individualism’, in which, the features of a nation with rampant individualism being considered, Krippendorf(1987)-insisted ‘evasion from reality’ and Hofstede(2014)-insisted modernization of a nation or its development degree are its causes. Second, in cultural difference concerning cultural relativity, Korea is under the influence of ‘masculinity’ indices both in the outbound and inbound demand for international tourism. This has been analyzed to have resulted from ‘freedom from politics/religion’, a feature of a nation with low masculinity. Whereas, Japan has been proven to be under the influence of ‘individualism’, a common attribute affecting the international demand for tourism, more than these cultural attributes are uniquely found in Japan. After all, a common cultural attribute affecting the demand for international tourism is individualism and the relative difference in cultural affect by-national demand for international tourism is, in the case of Korea, according to the masculinity index but this is, conclusively, different from nation to nation.

Citation status

* References for papers published after 2022 are currently being built.