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The Understanding on the Border and Territory of Northeast Goryeo by Colonial Historians during Japanese Occupation Period

  • The Review of Korean History
  • 2014, (115), pp.49-96
  • Publisher : The Historical Society Of Korea
  • Research Area : Humanities > History

Kwon Young-Kook 1

1숭실대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

The research on the border and territory of Joseon was started by Japanese researchers in Japanese occupation period. Joseon was once highly interested in northern border of Goryeo when Joseon was in conflict with Yeojin with the development of 4 Guns and 6 Jins in the early Joseon Dynasty. Late Joseon Silhak scholars were also interested in the border and territory of Goryeo and supposed that the locations of 9 Castles are below South of Gilju by raising questions that ‘History of Goryeo’ does not match with the records of biographies of influential persons, especially the locations of Gongheomjin and Seonchunryeong. After annexation of Joseon, Japan was interested in the Border of Joseon facing Border issues against Manchuria. It was important purpose of research to discover the fact that the border between Joseon and Manchuria has no great significance when viewed from the Manchuria-Joseon perspective as it could be an obstacle to unite the two regions. The border and territory of Northeast Goryeo by colonial historians during Japanese occupation are as follows. In unified Silla, Deungju(登州-安邊) was the north border against Yeojin, however, he border was expanded up to Hwaju (Yeongheung) by evelopment in Northeast region since the foundation of Goryeo, then in 7th year of Jeongjong, Hwaju became the negotiation window with Yeojin. After gates and castles were built in Jeongju, Gwanju and Wonheungjin in the 7th year of Jeongjong, the north border was expanded up to Jeongju. There was a lot of controversy surrounding the locations of 9 castles especially Gongheomjin and Seonchunryeong, the North end border in accordance with the conquest of Yeojin and building 9 castles by Yun, Gwan in Yejong. Scholars tried to disclose historical facts and geographical locations on the basis of thorough historic research and field survey. Each researcher presented a different view regarding the locations of 9 castles as Tsuda Sokichi(津田左右吉) assumed South of Gilju, Ikeuchi Hiroshi(池內宏) the Hamheung Plain and Matsui Hitoshi(松井等) South of Duman River. Many Korean scholars have recently published thru field survey in Manchuria insisting that the castles were located in Manchu region, North of Duman River. As the castles were under the control of Yüan by Ssangsungchongkwanbu(雙城摠管府) established in Northeast region in Yüan intervention period thus the competent range of 2 Castles-Administration was the subject for the research of the border and territory of Goryeo in this period. The early jurisdiction of 2 Castles-Administration was between South Jeongju and North Deungju, but reduced to South Jeongju and North Hwaju with Home Castles in 24th year of King Chungryeol. The north border, mostly Gilju, of newly acquired territory was the research subject in Northeast region after the recovery of 2 Castles-Administration. So far, there seems no big difference between researches byJapanese researchers in Japanese occupation period and today’s Korean scholars on the subject of Border and Territory of Northeast Goryeo except for the locations of 9 castles and Gongheomjin, acknowledged to have been built in the northernmost area by Yun, Gwan. Japanese researchers have been suspected to have deliberately reduced the locations of 9 castles from the colonial view of history. But they closely examined and tried to ascertain the locations of castles by directly exploring the old castle sites in Hamheung with the relevant historical data available in those days. And each different view was presented as South of Gilju by Tsuda Sokichi(津田左右吉), the Hamheung Plain by Ikeuchi Hiroshi(池內宏) and South of Duman River by Matsui Hitoshi(松井等), which seems they didn’t try to reduce the territory or distort on purpose based on the colonial view as Joseon was already part of Japan after the annexation.

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