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TheIssueofSoldierRepatriationandtheMilitary DiplomacybetweenJoseonandMingduringtheEarly JoseonPeriod

KyeoungLok Kim 1

1서울대학교

Accredited

ABSTRACT

LateGoryeoandearlyJoseon periodwereatimewhen an international tributesystem centered on Yuan wasreplaced by an internationaltribute system centeredon Mingandwith theuncertaintyin thesituation around Lioadung region,therelated parties engaged in fiercemilitary diplomacy. The early Joseon period's military diplomacy was focused on military exchanges and cooperation in order to carry out foreign and military policies by pursuing the diplomatic and military goals of maintaining peacefulrelationship with Ming,military stability in thenorthern frontier andestablishingJoseon'slegitimacyandnationalsecurity. Joseon staged active military diplomacy in order to further national interestand continues tributesystem,which wereinevitableatthetime. Atthattime,Mansan-gun problem,Jurchen problem and othermilitary problemsemergedwiththechangesin internationalsituation.Anextensive Mansan-gunproblemswhichoccurredwhenEmperorYeon’rak. The risk of Joseon-Ming military collision was big, intensifying the captureand ruleofLiaodungbyMing,butin realityitrarelyjeopardized the Joseon-Ming relations.The realmilitary collision in the Joseon-Ming relations was unrealized domestic and foreign situations of the two countries,Byusing diplomacy,thetwocountriessolved theproblem.The military diplomacy between Joseon and Ming was at the heart ofthe disputes.Joseon andMingcooperatemilitarily,repatriaterunawaysoldiers anddriftingsoldiers. Atthattime,theissueofsoldierrepatriation washighly complex and political. In an internationaltribute system centered around Ming, the soldierrepatriations were based upon the premise ofbeomwul(犯越) and wulkyeong(越境).Runaway soldiers were repatriated withoutfail.In this regard Mansan-gun which began during theTaejo period and was atits heightduringtheTaejongperiod,hadtoberepatriatedbutJoseon carried outsuccessfulmilitarydiplomacybymanipulatingthetime,sizeandcause ofthesoldierrepatriations. Keeping an eye on Joseon during the process ofa battle over the ImperialThrone,theMinghadtakenavarietyofmeasurestoeliminatethe diplomatic-military threat. In this process, Joseon made a diplomatic benefit to obtain Gomeong(誥命) from Ming. In legal formality, Ming preventbreakaway from a residentialdistrictand the country,and took firm action againstrunaway soldiers.On this account,Ming recognized thatsoldierrepatriationwasmaindutyofBeongbu(兵部). Joseon dispersed Mansan-gun in allpartsofthecountry and wasnot forthcomingin repatriatingMasan-gun toJoseon madeadiplomaticbenefit to obtain Gomeong(誥命)and theinvestitureofcrown princefrom Ming. Mingdemandpressedfortherepatriation ofJurchen tribes.Respondingto Ming's strong demand, Joseon enforced repatriation. The early Joseon period's concept of soldier repatriation was related to an international tributesystem centered around Ming.Joseon maintained a flexiblesoldier repatriation policy,takingtheinternationalsituation and theJoseon-Ming relationsintoaccount.

Citation status

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